Chief Problems in Defining the Postmodern

SHORT PAPER As we know the postmodernism is indefinable. However, it can be described as a set of critical, strategic and rhetorical practices using concepts such as difference, repetition, the trace, the simulacrum, and hyper-reality to against other concepts such as presence, identity, historical progress, epistemic certainty, ect. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Postmodernism pra. ) In the Oxford Dictionary, postmodernism be described as ‘a late 20th -century style and concept in the arts, architecture, and criticism, which represents a departure from modernism and is characterized by the self-conscious use of earlier styles and conventions, a mixing of different artistic styles and media , and a general distrust of theories’. (Oxford Dictionaries, pra. 2)For a long time, countless artists and theorists try to define the term modernism and postmodernism, but it was found too hard to distinguish them.

By the opinions of Paul Smethurst, postmodernism could be presented as a reaction of modernism, but this is a complex and slippery relationship defining modernism as much as postmodernism. (Paul Smethurst, 25) In this short paper, I will discuss one of the chief problems in defining postmodernism. The main issue in defining postmodernism are time and the ambiguity between modernism and postmodernism, the term “postmodernism” first entered the philosophical vocabulary in 1979, with the publication of The Postmodern Condition by Jean-Francois Lyotard. ( Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Postmodernism pra. ), but after WW? , the flame of postmodernism has already burning. In America, WW? and the failure of the Vietnam War, enhance the anti-war emotional, coupled with the cold situation of international environment; make people lost hope of the reality of life and human society. In counter-culture field, tendency of against the mainstream and negative emotion of eternal value appear. The side effects of industrial development brings environmental pollution, energy shortages, toxic waste, nuclear danger and many other hidden dangers, people have raised doubts on the scientific method.

In French, work with concepts developed during the structuralist revolution in Paris in the 1950s and early 1960s, including the influence of Marx and Freud. For this reason they are often called “poststructuralists. ” They also cite the events of May 1968 as a watershed moment for modern thought and its institutions. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Postmodernism pra. 2) Much of the significant artistic activity of the period since 1945 managed a compromise between modernist and postmodernist ideas, and some artists are very difficult to categorize in the respect. Christopher Butler, 125) It makes the timeline between modernism and postmodernism become fuzzier. However, suggests that postmodernism is an art movement in Europe and the United States around 1960s; it is an attack upon modernity or a complete departure from it. Rather, its differences lie within modernity itself, and postmodernism is a continuation of modern thinking in another mode. Bibliography Butler C, Postmodernism: a very short introduction, Oxford New York, OXFORD University press, 2002 print. Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press, http://www. xforddictionaries. com/view/entry/m_en_gb0651830#m_en_gb0651830 Access date, 28th July, 2010 Postmodernism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, First published Fri Sep 30, 2005, http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/postmodernism/ access date, 28th July, 2010 Ross, M A, ‘Defining the Post-Modern’, in The Post-Modern and post-industrial, Cambridge, New York etc. ,1991 pp3-20 Smethurst P, The postmodern chronotype: reading space and time in contemporary fiction, Amsterdam-Atlanta, Netherlands, Rodopi B. V. 1994 print.

Ppp in Bangladesh

Assignment On International Financial Management Topic: Public private partnership. Prepared For Md. Shoaib Ahmed Senior Lecturer, DBA ASA UNIVERSITY BANGLADESH Prepared By Md. Fazlul MobinID: 071-12-562 Md. Rakib SiddiqueID: 071-12-557 Shahanur Alam Bhuyan ID: 071-12-548 Syed Abdus SalamID: 071-12-550 Md. Ariful IslamID: 071-12-203 Date: 12th August, 2010 ASA UNIVERSITY BANGLADESH “Public Private Partnership and Explore the Related Issue of It” Abstract This is an empirical study to investigate the feasibility of public private partnership idea that introduced by the government of Bangladesh to increase the GDP growth rate.

For the purpose of the analysis, different types of data and information were used as measured to identify the feasibility of public private partnership in our country. In this paper we examine the different information of PPP activities in different countries like India, Malaysia, South Korea and Philippine. From that information we found that there is a close relationship between PPP and the growth rate. If we deeply concentrate on PPP activities in our country then we can easily achieve high GDP growth. So the development of our country mostly depend on how we efficiently done the PPP activities.

Most of the People believe that PPP is a idea to develop a country. Key words: Public Private Partnership (PPP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), development. Introduction A public private partnership is a legally-binding contract between government and business for the provision of assets and the delivery of services that allocates responsibilities and business risks among the various partners. In a P3 arrangement, government remains actively involved throughout the project’s life cycle. The private sector is responsible for the more commercial functions such as project design, construction, finance and operations.

At present per capita income in Bangladesh is only USD 695 (BDT 47,955) and almost 40percent (58 million) of population live below the poverty line. Income from industry is 29. 7 percent of total national income, and external trade is 40 percent of total national income. However, we are still considered as one of the least developed countries. Present government has vowed to eradicate poverty, attain highest possible growth by 2021, and build the country such that a thriving economy will fulfill basic human needs. Increased investment is a must for attaining higher growth.

Bangladesh economy failed to gather momentum until 1990. Average growth rate during this time was stagnant at less than 4 percent per year. The growth rate is also on the decline due to impact of the global economic downturn. Lack of investment in infrastructure, especially energy and power, port and communication has been identified as root cause behind sluggish growth. In order to achieve 8-10 percent growth, rate of investment needs to increase from 24-25 percent of GDP to 35-40 percent of GDP. A lot of resources are required to raise rate of investment to 35-40 percent of GDP.

It is challenging for the government to arrange such huge resources. Moreover, due to current global economic downturn, the prospect of receiving foreign assistance has diminished. Resource mobilization is not the only challenge for the government. It is also imperative to ascertain whether the government has skilled manpower and required institutional framework to implement mega infrastructure projects. So, the government of Bangladesh has taken the initiative of public private partnership to increase the GDP growth.

Objective of the Study The objective of the paper is to investigate the impact of PPP on GDP growth of Bangladesh. The concept of the study is taken from one of the working paper of Finance Division “Invigorating Investment Initiative through Public Private Partnership A Position Paper”. Moreover after completion of this paper we will know the rules and regulation of PPP contract, the pros and cons of PPP, how many project has already been taken under PPP contract, what are the other countries follow the PPP contract.

For the purpose of the study we have selected different countries from south Asia whose are the follower of PPP and by the help of PPP they develop their country. The ultimate objective of this paper is to identify whether any importance of PPP in economic development of Bangladesh or not. Historical perspective of PPP In 1996, the government adopted a private sector power generation policy to promote private sector participation. In 1997, under administrative control of the Economic Relation Division, Infrastructure Development Company ltd (IDCOL) was established in order to promote private sector investment in infrastructure development.

Similarly, Infrastructure Investment Facilitation Center (IIFC) was established by the government to assist relevant ministries, divisions or agencies with formulation of project proposal and screening as well as to provide technical assistance. Later in 2004, under Public Private Partnership initiative, Bangladesh Private Sector Infrastructure Guidelines (PSIG), which forms the basis of the current PPP, were issued in order to boost individual investment in the development and maintenance of infrastructure.

In 2007, a 5 year term Investment Promotion and Financing Facility (IPFF) endowed with BDT 4. 18 billion (equivalent to USD 60 million) was set up in Bangladesh Bank to finance government approved PPP based infrastructure development projects to be implemented by the private sector. Later in 2008, policy to promote private sector participation in power sector was formulated. Although these initiatives have been successful in financing and implementing a few small scale infrastructure development projects, they are not sufficient to cater to the requirements and potential of the country.

Therefore, to reduce the plight of the public and to boost economic development, an initiative is being undertaken to revisit the current PPP framework and facilities. Benefit of PPP The government, the private sector investors, and public can all benefit if private sector can be enticed into infrastructure development under PPP. The likely benefits to the relevant three parties are as follow: Public Sector ?? Maintaining Economic Stability ? Since the private sector invests in the infrastructure development, there is no need for the government to take loans and pay interests.

This does not exert excess pressure on money market, thereby diminishing upward pressure on interest rate and inflation. ?? Gains from Private Sector Innovation and Expertise ? Since the private sector is responsible for developing infrastructure, they use the most cost? effective and innovative means and technologies. This enables the best source of value for money gain. ?? Logical Estimate of Expenditure during the Lifecycle of the Infrastructure ? The private sector promoters coordinate and implement different aspects of the project such as designing, financing, construction, maintenance, and management.

Therefore, it is possible to make logical estimate of expenditure during the lifecycle of the infrastructure. ?? Achieving Desired Growth Rate ? Desired growth rate cannot be achieved if the government is unable to invest in infrastructure development at the appropriate time. Participation of private sector allows additional investment and increased production capacity that feeds into higher growth rate. Private Sector ?? Expansion of Business ? PPP facilitates expansion of business. The private sector can engage in sectors where conventionally public sector invests. ?? Innovation ?

Under PPP the private sector not only supplies materials, they are also engaged in multitude of activities such as financing, construction, ownership, maintenance, and management. As a result they have to be very innovative. Public/ Users ?? Accountability ? Since services are purchased from the private sector by paying fees or charges, the service providers remain accountable to the government and public. ?? More Responsible Government ? Since the government approves the PPP projects, it has to supervise whether the private service providers are abiding by the contracts. ?? Guarantee of Safety ?

Since the private sector has to bear the costs resulting from accidents and damages, they use reliable and quality materials to ensure safety. Risks Associated with PPP Implementation There is no apparent fiduciary risk if infrastructure is developed under public? private partnership as government does not invest or invests very little in such schemes. However, there might be some other risks as follow: ?? Loss of ownership of public properties ?? Approval of inflated costs ?? Overlooked public interest when pricing the services ?? Dysfunctional Infrastructure once ownership is handed over to the government

Prospective Sectors under PPP The government is interested in involving private sector in all sectors barring a few for national security reasons. Modern and reliable infrastructure is a must to uplift country’s economy from the current state to a higher growth trajectory. But due to lack of investment in infrastructure in the past seven years, it is now stagnant. Realising the demand for change, the present government’s election manifesto accorded highest priority to infrastructure development, particularly to power generation and welcomes PPP investment in the following areas: ??

Power and Energy ?? Transport Infrastructure (roads, rail, ports, airport and water transport) ?? Pure Drinking Water and Sewerage ?? Information Technology ?? Air Transport and Tourism ?? Industry ?? Education (particularly secondary and technical) and Research ?? Health and Family Welfare ?? Housing, etc Different PPP Implementation Models Different countries are implementing different PPP implementation models. The type of the model depends on the relevant sector (education, health, transportation) and on the type of the project itself. Some of the widely used models are:

There are more models besides the ones mentioned above. For example, education institutions can be co? financed and privately managed. Private sector can also take responsibility of providing health care in a certain area as well as responsibility of all public health care providers in that area. The main idea behind these models is to outsource the management to the private sector ?? BOO ? The private sector manages the infrastructure belonging to this model on build? own? operate basis. Government usually does not manage the infrastructure developed under this model.

At present Independent Power Producer (IPP) are operating under BOO model in Bangladesh. ?? BOT ? The private sector manages the infrastructure belonging to this model on build? operate? transfer basis, i. e. the private sector manages it until a specified time, after which the government is responsible for management. ?? BOOT ? This is an extended version of the BOT model. Under this model the ownership and management belongs to the private sector until a specified time. After expiry of the term, ownership and management is transferred to the Government Progress of PPP Implementation under the Present Framework

Three government organizations are involved in the project implementation by the private sector under the PPP initiative. So far the direct assistance of these organizations have enabled implementation of 27 projects of which 18 projects are in the power and energy sector, 6 projects in telecommunication sector, 2 projects in the port infrastructure sector and 1 project in the information technology sector (Annex 1). The contribution of the three organizations involved in PPP project implementation is summarized below: i) IDCOL ? Through this government sponsored company PPP project finance and financial intermediation are conducted.

Till date, BDT 13 billion has been financed by IDCOL in 22 projects implemented under PPP. ii) IPFF ? This project financed 5 power sector projects under the PPP initiative, generating 178 megawatt power. Three projects have started power generation on a commercial basis and have added 99 megawatt of power to the national grid. The remaining two projects are at the final implementation stage. The total expenditure in the 5 aforementioned projects was BDT 8. 67 billion of which IPFF financed BDT 4. 41billion (51% of total expenditure), private investors financed BDT 2. 1 billion (32% of total expenditure) and participating banks financed BDT 1. 46 billion (17% of total expenditure). iii) IIFC ? This too is a government sponsored company which is responsible for providing expert assistance to relevant ministries, divisions or agencies regarding project development, project formulation, project design, technical, engineering, implementation and monitoring related issues for projects sanctioned by PPP initiative. Till now, IIFC has been under contract to design 30, provide technical support to 8 and consultancy support to 16 PPP projects.

Almost all the projects implemented under PPP have taken IIFC support. List of Important Mega Projects and its Model in Bangladesh |Sector |Name of the Project |Estimated Cost |PPP Model | | | |(USD billion) | | |Transportation |Dhaka? Chittagong access control highway |3. 02 |BOOT | | |Sky? rain encompassing the Dhaka metropolis |2. 80 |BOOT | | |Dhaka city subway |3. 10 |BOOT/BOT | | |Dhaka city elevated expressway |1. 23 |BOOT/BOT | | |Dhaka? Narayanganj? Gazipur? Dhaka elevated expressway |1. 90 |BOOT/BOT | |Power and Energy |Four coal, diesel or gas fired power plants capable of |1. |BOO/BOT | | |producing 450 megawatts electricity in different parts | | | | |of the | | | | |country | | | |Water transport |Deep sea port in Chittagong | |BOOT/BOT | | |Total (excluding Chittagong deep sea port) |13. 85 | | List of Other Projects Sector |Name of the Project |Estimated Cost |PPP Model | | | |(BDT Million) | | |Transportation |1. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) | 150 | BOO | | |2. Articulated Bus Service |50 |BOO | | |3. Bus Route Franchise (BRF) |50 |BOO | List of Projects in Education and Health Sectors |Sector |Name of the Project | |Health Health care provider for a specific area (a few districts) | | |Setting up cancer and/or other hospitals | |Education |Setting up quality secondary schools | | |Setting up dormitories, health centers, auditoriums, gymnasiums | | |in public universities | | |Development, expansion or improvement of present Degree colleges| | |Setting up research institutions or research foundations | | |dedicated to the institution | Literatures review According to Abu Naser Chowdhury (2009) The new government of Bangladesh has shown enough positive intent to incorporate PPP in the coming fiscal budget 2009-2010. Although late, it is a very wise decision by the Finance Minister.

Finance Minister AMA Muhith believed that the participation and assistance of the government, foreign and local private investors, the indigenous and foreign NGO’s and the development partners in the PPP initiative will be a notable way of putting our Charter for Change to action. Methodology The process consists of a series of action that are necessary to effectively carry out the report. • Determine the research objective • Research design • Data collection • Literature review • Data analysis • Result evaluation • Report preparation Sources of Data Secondary Data Data used to represent the report most of them are collected from secondary sources. So data collected through- ? PPP manual of Bangladesh, India, Philippine, Malaysia, South Korea. ? Newsletter edition ? Different research report ? Web search Primary Data

For the collection primary data, we discussed with different economist of our country about the concept of Public Private Partnership activities and the economy of Bangladesh. Limitations of the Study ? Unavailability of research information ? Time constrain Empirical Result Following figure 1 illustrate the investment comparison of Bangladesh with India, Philippine, South Korea, Malaysia during the period from 2001-02 to 2009-2010 fiscal year. The table shows that South Koreas invest more in public private sector rather then other countries. There investment in PPP approximately $0. 05056 trillion during the time period. India is the second position in case of amount of investment in PPP, amount of their investment is $ 0. 04819 trillion. But Philippine is the last in terms of their invested amount, $0. 2582 trillion is their total investment in PPP. Malaysia got the fourth position in the serial among the country there invested amount is $ 0. 03725 trillion. Bangladesh invests $ 0. 03780 trillion in PPP sector, now we are in the third position. [pic] Figure1: Investment comparison among the countries, (2001-2010). Figure 2 shows that the relationship between PPP and GDP growth rate among the country. Malaysia is a growing and relatively open state-oriented market economy. The state plays a significant but declining role in guiding economic activity through macroeconomic plans. But other countries GDP is steadily increase with the help of PPP activities. e see that the countries other than Malaysia GDP growth is increasing with the help of PPP, so we can say that our countries GDP will also increase with the help of GDP. [pic] Figure 2: GDP growth rate among the country. (Estimated) (2010) Conclusion PPP is a good idea to develop the economy of any country. Many countries, particularly ASEAN and SAARC countries have successfully implemented PPP projects. In so doing these countries have managed to increase production capacity without putting any pressure on government revenue and could achieve double digit growth rates. There is no other way for us than to invest heavily in infrastructure if we want to develop like our neighboring countries.

In the uncertain external environment, the plan to raise GDP growth to 8 percent by 2013 will become real if infrastructure is developed under the PPP initiative. The vision for a prosperous and developed Bangladesh will become reality in 2021? the year of golden jubilee of Bangladesh’s independence, if we lay the foundation today to raise GDP growth to 8 percent by 2013, and to 10 percent by 2017 and beyond. So there is relation between the Public Private Partnership and the economic development of a country. Reference 1. www. mof. gov. bd 2. finmin. nic. in 3. PPP Manual of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia,Philippin and South Korea. 4. Abu Naser Chowdhury (2009) “the method of infrastructure in Bangladesh” PhD candidate at Nanyang Technology University , Singapure. 5. doza. wordpress. com 6. www. unescap. org 7. Bangladesh bank 8. Junglim Hahm “ private Participation in the Infrustructure Programme of the republic of Korea” Transport and Communications Bulletin for Asia and the Pacific. 9. www. pppindiadatabase. com Appendix PPP Framework – Cross Country Comparison The Government has issued Private Sector Infrastructure Guidelines (PSIG) in 2004 to accelerate private investment in infrastructure development and operation through Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiative. Since, the issuance of PSIG? 2004, in the mean time, more than 5? years have elapsed but investment did not occur at the expected level.

Under these circumstances, it became imperative to revisit and give a fresh look to the institutional framework and terms of reference for project identification, scrutiny, approval, tender and project implementation procedures as envisaged in the PSIG 2004. At the same time, existing PPP framework of Bangladesh needs comparison with the PPP regulatory and institutional framework of other countries to identify the deficiencies in the prevailing PPP framework and formulate recommendation for making the framework time? befitting and effective. A large number of countries have prepared guidelines and/or enacted laws in attracting private investment for implementing projects through PPP approach. The following table shows the comparative position of India and the Philippines vis? a? vis Bangladesh. |SL. NO. Issue |Bangladesh |India |Philippines |Observation | |01 |Regulatory |Guidelines of |Guidelines for formulation, |‘The Philippines BOT | | | |Framework |PSIG? 2004 is being |appraisal and approval of |law’ enacted in | | | | |followed |PPP |1993 is being | | | | | |projects, 2006 is being |followed | | | | | |followed | | | |02 |Institutional |An 11? member |a. A 5 member Public Private|There is no separate |a. 11? ember | | |Framework |Private |Partnership Appraisal |committee. PPP |PICOM is a big | | | |Infrastructure |Committee (PPPAC) has been |projects are |committee. It | | | |Committee |constituted. The PPPAC is |processed under |usually takes long | | | |(PICOM) has been |housed in Department of |delegated authority |time to arrange | | | |constituted. The |Economic Affairs (DEA) under|approved by the |meetings of such a | | | |Board of |M/O. Finance.

Two more small|National Economic |big committee and | | | |Investment (BOI) |committees are in place for |Development |to maintain contacts | | | |provides |appraisal of projects up to |Authority (NEDA). |with the members. | | | |secretarial |certain level of project | |b. Single point | | | |services to PICOM |cost | |technical services | | | | |ceiling. | |are hindered in the | | | | |b. A dedicated PPP nit has | |absence of | | | | |been constituted in the DEA | |dedicated PPP Unit | | | | |for | | | | | | |providing technical services| | | | | | |to | | | | | | |PPPAC on PPP project | | | | | | |preappraisal | | | | | | |and recommendation | | | | | | |c. A separate PPP Appraisal | | | | | | |Unit | | | | | | |has been set? p in the | | | | | | |Planning | | | | | | |Commission | | | |03 |Terms of |PICOM’s role is |PPPAC examine the PPP |Each government |Since, PICOM’s role | | |Reference |limited to |projects |department |is limited to | | | |coordination, |and place them to the |examines and |coordination | | | |communication |appropriate authority with |analyses its project |and | | | |and |its |and places to NEDA |communication | | | |encouragement |own recommendations for |for approval having |hence, it is | | | |for PPP related |consideration and approval. |cost above 300 |understandable that | | | |activities and |a. Project cost beyond 2500 |million peso. in most cases | | | |placement of |million rupees and project | |PICOM can not | | | |proposal to the |included in the National | |examine and | | | |Cabinet |Highway Development Plan | |evaluate PPP | | | |Committee on |(NHDP) having cost beyond | |projects properly. | | | |Economic Affairs |5000 million rupees are | | | | | |(CCEA) through |placed | | | | | |Cabinet Division |to PPPAC for recommendation | | | | | | |b. A Standing Finance | | | | | | |Committee (SFC? 4 member | | | | | | |committee) examines project | | | | | | |having cost above 1000 | | | | | | |million | | | | | | |rupees and less than 2500 | | | | | | |million rupees and NHDP | | | | | | |listed | | | | | | |project having cost less | | | | | | |than | | | | | | |5000 million rupees and | | | | | | |above | | | | | | |2500 million rupees and | | | | | | |places | | | | | | |them to a Committee under | | | | | | |M/O.

Finance for | | | | | | |recommendation to the | | | | | | |appropriate authority for | | | | | | |approval | | | | | | |c. SFC or Expenditure | | | | | | |Finance | | | | | | |Committee (EFC? 4 member | | | | | | |committee) considers and | | | | | | |recommends a project costing| | | | | | |less than 1000 million | | | | | | |rupees to | | | | | | |the appropriate authority | | | | | | |for | | | | | | |approval | | | |04 |Project |a. CCEA for |a. CCEA approves project |a. NEDA approves | | | |Approval |project having |having |project that has | | | | |cost more or |cost above 2500 million |estimated cost of | | | | |equivalent to USD |rupees |200 million peso or | | | | |5 million. |and NHDP listed project |above | | | | |b.

Concern |having |b. Local government | | | | |ed ministry for |cost beyond 5000 million |institutions approve | | | | |project having |rupees |project having cost | | | | |cost less then USD |with the recommendation of |less than 200 million | | | | |5 million. |PPPAC |peso | | | | | |b.

Appropriate authority | | | | | | |approves project having cost| | | | | | |less than 2500 million | | | | | | |rupees or | | | | | | |above 1000 million rupees | | | | | | |and | | | | | | |NHDP listed project having | | | | | | |less | | | | | | |than 5000 million rupees and| | | | | | |above 2500 million rupees | | | | | | |c. An appropriate authority | | | | | | |approves project costing | | | | | | |less | | | | | | |than 1000 million rupees | | | |05 |Project |a. Project cost |a. PPPAC empowered to give |a. Central |a.

After | | |Identification |more than USD 5 |‘approval in principle’ of |government |identification, all | | | |million identified |project |agencies identify |projects large and | | | |by line ministries |for listing having cost |projects with |small is needed to | | | |or PICOM is |above |estimated cost of |be placed before | | | |placed to CCEA |2500 million rupees and NHDP|200 million peso or |CCEA for listing that | | | |for approval of |listed project having cost |above and place |require long | | | |inclusion into the |beyond 5000 million rupees |them to NEDA for |processing and | | | |PPP project list. |with an inter? ministerial |approval |discourages private | | | |b. Project cost |committee recommendation |b. Local government |sector and | | | |less then USD 5 |b. With SFC’s recommendation|institutions ( |concerned ministry | | | |million identified |a 2? member committee under |Municipality, |b.

Absence of | | | |by line ministries |finance ministry ‘approval |provincial, city and |involvement of | | | |is sent to PICOM |in |regional) identify |Planning | | | |for inclusion into |principle’ for listing of |project having cost |Commission poses | | | |the PPP project |project |less than 200 million |the risk of sectoral | | | |list. |having cost above 1000 |peso |imbalance and | | | | |million | |duplication of | | | | |rupees or less than 2500 | projects | | | | |million | | | | | | |rupees and NHDP listed | | | | | | |project | | | | | | |having less than 5000 | | | | | | |million | | | | | | |rupees and above 2500 | | | | | | |million | | | | | | |rupees | | | | | | |c.

SFC or EFC gives | | | | | | |‘approval in | | | | | | |principle’ of projects | | | | | | |costing less | | | | | | |than 1000 million rupees on | | | | | | |identification of projects | | | | | | |by the | | | | | | |relevant line ministry | | | |06 |Use of |According to |Different standard formats |Different |Concerned | | |standard |guidelines |for |departments |ministries and | | |formats for |standard formats |different stages have been |provide its standard |interested private | | |approval |for tender, |included in the guidelines formats |investors face | | | |contract , etc | | |dilemma as no | | | |would be included | | |standard formats | | | | | | |have been included | | | | | | |in the guidelines. | |07 |Classification |a. A Project |a. Project cost 2500 million|a.

Project cost 200 |Approval of CCEA | | |of Project |having capital |rupees or more and NHDP |million peso or |for listing of all | | | |cost of USD 25 |listed project having cost |more |projects (large and | | | |million or above is |5000 |b. Project cost less |small) is not | | | |defined as big |million rupees or more |than 200 million |conducive to fast | | | |projects |b. Project cost 1000 million|peso |track decision | | | |b. A Project |rupees or more and NHDP | |making. | | |having capital cost |listed project having cost | | | | | |of less than USD |beyond 2500 million rupees | | | | | |25 million is |or | | | | | |defined as small |less than 5000 million | | | | | |projects |rupees | | | | | | |c.

Project cost less than | | | | | | |1000 | | | | | | |million rupees | | | |08 |Executive |BOI provides |DEA provides all technical |Government |Additional stages | | |Responsibility |secretarial |as |departments |requires additional | | | |services to PICOM |well as secretarial services|perform necessary |time for PPP project | | | | |to |activities. |processing that | | | | |PPPAC through its PPP Unit. |cause delay in PPP | | | | |Ministry of Finance acts as | |project approval | | | | |the | | | | | | |nodal ministry in financial | | | | | | |and | | | | | | |other stimulus matters | | | |09 |Determinatio |CCEA constitutes |PPPAC and other relevant |Project related |Constituting a | | |n of terms & |separate |committees determine terms &|government |separate committee | | |conditions |committee for |conditions on the basis of |departments take |and determining | | |for project |each project as |reports on technical, |expert services to |Terms & Conditions | | |related |Major Terms and |engineering and legal |assess technical and |by that committee | | |different |Condition |matters at |financial soundness |require long time. | |contracts |Committee |feasibility study and |and determine |MTCC is constituted | | | |(MTCC) for |preappraisal |relevant conditions |on an ad? hoc basis | | | |determining |test stage. | |and in most cases | | | |terms and | | |desired professional | | | |conditions for | | |opinion remain | | | |different | | |unavailable. | | |contracts in a | | | | | | |project | | | | |10 |Sick Project |According to |Nothing has been mentioned |According to |Presence of the sick | | | |guidelines, in |in |provision of the act |project related | | | |addition to other |the guidelines regarding |government shall |clause in the | | | |causes, |this |take full |guidelines is not | | | |government shall |issue |responsibility and |favourable to | | | |not take | |make required |private sector | | | |responsibility of a | |compensation if any |entrepreneur for | | | |project if turns | |project get sick due |investment in | | | |sick | |to change in |infrastructure | | | |due to change in | |government policy |development. | | |government policy, | |and arrangement | | | | |increase in taxes | | | | | | |and reduction in | | | | | | |fiscal incentives. | | | | [pic] ———————– 0 0. 01 0. 02 0. 03 0. 04 0. 05 0. 06 Dollar in trillion Bangladesh S. Korea India Philippine Malaysia Country Investment comparison Series1

Macbeth Essay

1. What did you learn through a change in the character? In the play Macbeth, by William Shakespeare, we learn that the idea of using evil as a short cut to achieve our ambitions in life is exceedingly dangerous. After the witches’ prophecies, Macbeth becomes full of ambition and commits numerous evil deeds in order to fulfil his desire to become king. This change in the character reveals that even though it may seem expedient to use evil, in the long run, evil cannot be trusted and it extracts a heavy price for its help; in Macbeth’s case, the loss of everything he loves.

During the first act of the play, Macbeth’s admirable qualities are easy to observe. Macbeth is a loyal vassal of Duncan and proves his courage on the battlefield by defeating the Norwegian army which is assisting a rebellion against Duncan’s reign. For example, when the captain is reporting back their victory to King Duncan, he describes Macbeth as ‘brave Macbeth’ and tells how Macbeth ‘unseamed [Macdonwald] from the nave to chops, /And fixed his head upon our battlements’.

However, returning from the battle, Macbeth and Banquo meet the three witches and Macbeth is given prophecies which tempt him and test his moral courage. Unfortunately, Macbeth cannot withstand his ambitions to become King and eventually murders Duncan, which reveals that his moral fortitude is not equal to his physical courage. Although the witches tell Macbeth the truth, Banquo puts it best when he says ‘oftentimes, to win us to our harm,/ The instruments of darkness tell us truths,/ Win us with honest trifles’.

However in the end they betray us. It is regrettable that Macbeth does not listen to his friend, but instead chooses to commit an evil act and thus he begins to change. However killing the king is not the last of Macbeth’s act of evil. He soon realises that once you start down the path of evil there is no going back. In order to secure his position as King, he kills Duncan’s guards. Soon after, we can see that Macbeth has become evil when he is not able to say ‘Amen’ and because he heard a voice tell him he will not be able to sleep again.

Then Macbeth orders the murder of his best friend, Banquo, and his son, Fleance. He tells his wife that his mind is ‘full of scorpions’ because ‘Banquo and his Fleance lives’. This shows us that Macbeth has become so evil that he is even willing to kill his best friend. He has fallen from the brave man who wins the love of his king for his loyalty and becomes something evil. This is further shown when he goes to visit the witches who say ‘Something wicked this way comes! ’ before Macbeth enters.

Macbeth is told by the witches to ‘beware Macduff’. This leads to Macbeth ordering the murder of Macduff and his family. Fortunately Macduff escapes to England but Macbeth is now beyond redemption. He has become a creature of evil. This change in Macbeth’s character shows us that although we may agonise about the decision to commit our first evil act, once we have, further acts become easier until very soon we lose our moral inhibitions. Therefore it is better not to start down the path of evil, no matter how alluring it may seem.

The end of the play teaches us that there are consequences for using evil as a shortcut to achieve our ambition. After Malcolm returns to Scotland with Macduff and an English army, we see a very different Macbeth from the confident commanding figure of before. Now he is filled with self doubt and self loathing. Even when he hears the news of his wife’s death, he is not moved to strong emotion; instead he pathetically says ‘she should have died hereafter’. The evil that Macbeth has committed seems to have destroyed his capacity to feel strong emotions.

He says ‘I have almost forgot the taste of fears’. This teaches us that it is impossible to enjoy the benefits which can be accrued from using evil as we become so emotionally detached from the world, that we begin not to care. This is a sign of Macbeth’s loss of humanity. However, Macbeth tries to reassure himself, saying ‘I bear a charmed life, which must not yield/ To one of woman born’. But as Macduff was a caesarean birth, this fulfils the prophecy, and allows him to kill Macbeth. This is case of justice being served as the tyrant Macbeth has caused his country untold misery.

The change in Macbeth made me realise that the price we pay for using evil is too great. Sometimes it is better to be satisfied with what we have and forget our ambitions if the only way to achieve them is through hurting others. In conclusion, through the change in Macbeth we learn that using evil to attain what we desire can be very dangerous. As Macbeth falls for the temptation of using evil to achieve his ambition, he becomes a puppet of evil. We learn that evil will tell us small truths to gain our trust, but if we succumb to its lure, it will eventually betray us and take everything we have.

Promotion Strategy

Promotion strategy Promotion is to attract customers to purchase, and it involves communicating information between distribution channels. Promotion Objectives There are three promotion objectives which are inform, persuade and remind (MKT303 Lecture notes, Sem. 3, 2008, P. 14-9). Since there are existing competitors to produce safety cars, Toyota should use persuade objective to show customer Prius is better than other brands cars. Factors that affecting Promotion Mix • Nature of market Toyota is an international company that their promotion will be all around the world.

In Australia Toyota should choose the capital city such as Sydney and Melbourne. Those city have more customer to purchase our product. • Nature of the product Because of Prius is a high involvement product which is more expensive and associated with high risk, consumers would desire more information to decide purchase or not (MKT201 Lecture notes, Sem. 3, 2008, P. 101). Therefore, Toyota should provide more detail for the Prius such as the safety system, styles, price, guarantee and retail stores. • Stage in the product life cycle Toyota is in the maturity stage which means there are many competitors in the market.

The promotion objective is persuading. Therefore, the company has to be aggressive to persuade customer to buy the car. They also need to use some promotion skill to increase the demand of Prius. • Stages in the consumer adoption process Due to the persuading objective of Toyota they will use evaluation and trail in the adoption process. Toyota will need to show the advantage of Prius to the competitor to win customers interest to Prius. • Combination of Push and Pull Strategy Toyota would use the combination of push and pull strategy.

Toyota is using some intermediaries to sale their cars. Push strategy is to direct to the channel member in order to encourage to stock their cars and also put their car in a better location. Toyota may offer discount to the channel member. For pull strategy, Toyota is going to provide a discount, after sales service or trail of driving to customer to let them ask the intermediaries more information about the product (MKT303 Lecture notes, Sem. 3, 2008, P. 14-20). • Setting Budgets To have a suitable budget is important for a company to develop more efficiently.

Toyota should use the task method to set budget. The budget will depend on the activities and operation performance (MKT303 Lecture notes, Sem. 3, 2008, P. 14-23). The advance for Toyota is that they can distribute their money more efficiently to ensure all resource allocated into right place. Promotion Mix Decisions • Sales Promotion Sales promotion is to stimulate customer interest trial and purchase. Sales promotion offer intermediaries for promotion allowance and discount. Toyota has a very good reputation that people would like to try their cars.

The sales promotion will do further encourage to customer to purchase their cars. It also encourage the intermediaries to promote their cars. Toyota company should show the advantages of Prius to customer that compare to other competitors. • Advertising Advertising can introduce new product to the market or remind customers the product (MKT303 Lecture notes, Sem. 3, 2008, P. 15-5). Toyota should use product advertising for Prius because of Toyota is a well known brand and has its reputation. The advertisement for Toyota can build the selective demand of customers in compare to the other cars.

They use magazine TV and internet ads to remind their target customer which is higher income level people. Those medium are more flexible that can update the car information of after sale service information. • Salespeople To let customer buy the product, Toyota should know the customer better. Toyota should use large numbers of salespeople to promote their cars because of they have enough budget. The order taker could follow the customers purchase and maintain the sales. Toyota not only provide one on one service by salespeople but also provide many technology support people to answer customers questions. Other Promotion Besides advertising and salespeople Toyota can also use external environments as opportunities to promote Prius. Since the economic recession, people give lower budget to buy cars. As a lower price level and better safety car, Prius has a opportunities to be chosen by customers. • Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) For deliver a consistent and complete message to target customers, Toyota should use IMC to communicate (MKT303 Lecture notes, Sem. 3, 2008, P. 14-24). An example of that is the design relate to the budget setting and advertising strategy.

Wise Old Woman

Wise Old Woman Auvaiyar ???????? Varan S Karunakaran Melbourne [pic] Wise Old Woman Auvaiyar ???????? Varan S Karunakaran Melbourne Copy Right © First Published in 2004-02-04 Publishers Honey-Stream Contents Preface6 PUBLISHERS VIEW8 READERS’ REVIEW9 1. Introduction10 2. Wise Old Woman11 2. 1 General11 2. 2 First Auvaiyar11 2. 3 Second Auvaiyar12 2. 3 Third Auvaiyar12 2. 4 Attribution to Auvaiyar13 3. TAMIL LANGUAGE15 4. CHILDREN CHANNEL17 4. 1 General17 4. 2 Arthi Chudhi18 4. 3 Konrai Venthan19 4. 4Muthurai19 4. 5 Nalvahi19 5. 0 MORAL MANNERS20 5. 1 Blameless Behaviour20 5. 2 Virtuous Vision26 5. 3 Wholesome Wisdom31 . 4 Peaceful Path33 6. ETHICAL ETIQUETTE36 6. 1 Righteous Restraint (????????? )36 6. 2 Complacent Conduct (?????? ??????? )55 6. 3 Mature Messages (?????? )71 6. 4 Commendable Course (?????? )82 7. GLOSSARY97 Preface The Tamil alphabets are being taught using the rhyme of the wise old woman (WOW). Thus this work retains the original structure of these morale works. The modern father of lateral thinking is Edward De Bono. It is believed that there were several Auvaiyar(s) known among works in Tamil. You may wonder how one of the Auvaiyar who used the lateral thinking to bless the king to “fortify the embankment”.

Tamils believe that the God Murugan used lateral thinking to fun with one of the Auvaiyar. All Auvaiyar(s) are not only wise ladies but also had sharp minds. The subject rhymes are not only simple but also reminder the fundamental concept for a peaceful life. Four of Auvaiyar’s works – Arthi Chudhi, Konrai Venthan, Muthurai and Nalvazhi are depicted here in English. As her works are in the verses form, even explanations in Tamil differ among various publications. Many Tamil words do not have a meaningful word in English language. For example, the Tamil word “aram” which has no exact meaning in English.

We can find many words with closer meaning. Thus it is not possible to provide “the” translation for her works. This work will be called as an interpretation (Chapter 5) and a translation depicted in words (Chapter 6). It is my opinion that there is no translation can capture the magnificent principles behind her works. Only way is to read the original verses in Tamil (not even the description in Tamil). This is an indirect encouragement for the Tamil speaking community not to miss the opportunity to learn Tamil language while young.

The verses were originally written in the ancient feudal society where primary production (agriculture) was considered as the noble tasks. Today the world went through industrial transformation, economical reformation and electronic revolution. In the feudal society men earned wealth but today some women’s earning capacity is much more than their husband’s earning. Thus certain moderation of the novel verses is required to reflect the current life style. The main part of the book is Chapter 5 which is “Moral Manners. ” It contains the interpretation of Auvaiyar’s four works.

Modern thinking is employed to reflect the current life style of the people and to make them secular with no specific references to any culture. The purpose of the book is to provide the opportunities for young children to learn and elders to refresh whenever they needed. It is neither an invention nor a discovery but simply innovative ideas are employed to provide the existing information in Tamil. The Chapter 6 of this book is not a literal translation of exiting works but a translation based on the Auvaiyar’s concepts to provide a smooth flow for reading. Thus it is provided under the title of “Ethical Etiquette. Here not only references to Indian culture and Hindu religion are retained but also the original Tamil verses can be located. A culture is a wealth of the community. The community applied it every day to advance their quality of life. This book is not saying which culture is the best or superior. This book is merely based on a culture where the Interpreter was brought up and set up his mind. It is always good to know more about other cultures and their wealth of their works. This book is developed with providing assistance to overseas Tamil children whose first language in school is no more Tamil.

Some of them learn Tamil at home or from community. But there are many overseas Tamil students missed learning Tamil language. This book is equally suitable for Tamils who learn Tamil as first language or as second language. This book is also developed to be used by any other Indian Children whose mother tongue is not Tamil and all other children from English speaking world. The original Tamil verses are included for those who are competent in both languages. Others can ignore the sand-witched Tamil verses. PUBLISHERS VIEW READERS’ REVIEW Introduction Every child born in this world is innocent.

That is the reason, every body likes the children. Indians love children as gods like Kannan, Murugan and Iyyeppan where they appear as young children. Every child is not grown up as innocent adult. What are the changes being made while they are growing? The answer could be environment and circumstances. When the difficult situations arise, it disturbs the direction of thinking. Previous experiences on similar incidences affect the views which lead to frustration and revenge. Egoism makes greedy. In the end, majority of the crowd got distress with many other forms of extremisms including fanatics.

What is needed for life is a peaceful and blissful survival. When people realize about themselves, they achieve the peacefulness. I used to read Auvaiyar’s works to build my mental strength which gave me the blissfulness needed to me. Now I am providing those in both English and Tamil for others benefits who ever want to read them in either of the language. No child in Tamil speaking home in anywhere in this world forgets Auvaiyar. Two of her works (first two listed below) are being used to learn Tamil Alphabet as poem in very early stage of learning.

The other two (last two listed below) are being applied to understand the unexpected outcome of our actions. She has many other works too. All the four works were based on very fundamental moral principles which are interpreted in this book as follows: • Blameless Behaviour or Righteous Restraint (Arthi Chudhi) • Virtuous Vision or Complacent Conduct (Konrai Venthan) • Wholesome Wisdom or Mature Messages (Muthurai) • Peaceful Path or Commendable Course (Nalvazhi) 2. Wise Old Woman 2. 1 General The wise old woman (WOW) is Auvaiyar. Her verses are not only beautiful and rhymed but also have several deep moral values and spiritual meanings.

Among the many Tamil poets and poetesses Auvaiyar stands pre-eminent. Auvai is another form of addressing mother in Tamil and Telengu. Later Auvai evolved into a courteous form of addressing an old lady with the addition of “ar” to make it more polite in Tamil. In all pictures Auvaiyar is depicted as a white – clad old lady with a staff in hand. Other than the four moral verses named in Chapter 1, several other works of her are published in Tamil languages. Scholars seem to agree that all the above four “Auvaiyar” poems are by a single woman and this is the general believing among the Tamil people.

The works under the Auvaiyar’s name are wisdom to widen the daily life. There is no other work surpassed her contributions for brevity and principles. There are numerous translations of Auvaiyar’s works into other languages. But no translation can capture the magnificence of the original Tamil. There is no authentic biography exists about her. What little is known of her has been gathered from oral tradition and from occasional references in the writings of contemporary poets. It is not possible to get the history correctly. However, Auvaiyar was born and bred in Tamil Nadhu in South India.

It is possible to note that at least three Auvaiyar’s can be spotted in Tamil literature because they belong to three different periods. It appears that all the three Auvaiyars were great devotees of Ganapathy the elephant faced God who is the remover of obstacles. Most of Auvaiyars’ work begins with an invocation to him. 2. 2 First Auvaiyar This Auvaiyar was the daughter of Athi (Mother) and Bhagawan (father). She was found abandoned as an infant in a traveler’s hut and adopted by foster parents. This earliest Auvaiyar was a poetess of the Sangam age (First Century AD) and a contemporary of King Athigaman Netuman Anci.

Her works were included in Purananuru, Kuruntokai, Natthinai and Akananuru. Thiruvalluvar who wrote Thirukkural had a sister called Auvaiyar. Some believes that the first Auvaiyar was his sister considering the period and having common names for parents based on the first Thirukkural. Many others disputes based on caste system. 2. 3 Second Auvaiyar The second Auvaiyar was a woman saint and close associate of two noble Siva devotees, Sundara Moorthy Nayanar and Cheraman Perumal, where both of them were inscribed as great Saiva saints in Sekkilar’s epic hagiography, the Periyapuranam. She lived around 800 AD.

She wrote Vinayagar Agaval and Auvai Kural. She was associated with the Lambika Kundalini Yoga School. 2. 3 Third Auvaiyar The third one was a contemporary of Ottkakuthar, Kampar and Pugalenthi (1000 AD). It is believed that this third Auvaiyar is the subject of this book because of the references of Nayanmar (She referred to as “muvar tamulum” which means the works of the three saints) who lived much later period. Arthi is a flower which was also royal floral emblem of the Cholas. Thus many say that she should have lived in Cholas period which support the claim that the four works belong to this third Auvaiyar.

The third Auvaiyar was also called Koolukupadi (one who sings for bowl of soup). The poet Kambar was commissioned by a dancing girl called Silambi to compose a verse on her and gave him 500 gold coins for it, but Kambar who normally, took 1000 gold coins scribbled half a verse on the walls with charcoal. Auvaiyar who happened to come soon afterwards accepted a cup of soup (pap) as reward and completed the stanza. There was an Auvaiyar who was associated with Lord Murugan and some says it was the third one. She could be another Auvaiyar. 2. 4 Attribution to Auvaiyar

During a visit to a Siva temple, Auvaiyar sat down on the floor due to tiredness. Her legs were stretched and pointed towards God Siva which she did not notice. However, the temple priest asked Auvaiyar to cross her legs. Auvaiyar seek advice from the priest to provide a direction where Siva does not exist. Hindus consider that pointing legs to altar is an unacceptable behaviour. Hindus also believe that god is every where (omnipresent). Foolish priest did not realise that divinity is every where and not limited to altar in Temples. God is the spirit in the heart or the energy/forces that operate every thing in this universe.

One of the Auvaiyar was an aggressive defender of women’s rights. On one occasion when some men reviled the character of women, Auvaiyar retorted that “all women would be good by nature if men did not spoil them; and most men would have a tolerable stock of sense if the women did not make fools of them. ” One of the Auvaiyar said that what we learned was a handful of soil where what is available to learn is equal to the size of the earth (Learned knowledge is finite whereas world is infinite). This means that no body can claim that they knew everything. Auvaiyar was a lateral thinker.

At a coronation ceremony, Auvaiyar blessed the king which surprised all the audience. She said “Fortify the Embankment” where she used the Tamil word “Varapuyarga (???????? )”. It literally means raise the bund. When the audience asked her what it means to king. She retorted that when the embankment is strengthening, it contains more water that is essential for paddy cultivation which was the prime production at that time. When more paddies (stable food is rice which comes from paddy) is produced, the citizens will prosper and thus more revenue will be yielded to king.

Consequently the strength and power of the king will increase. All others blessed the king directly wondered her lateral thinking. One of the Auvaiyar, while traveling through an orchard, she noticed a fruit tree where a young boy was perched on the tree. She asked him to pluck some fruits for her. The young boy sarcastically asked her whether she would like to have hot fruits or cold fruits. Auvaiyar was stuck as she did not think that there were two kinds of fruits. But, Auvaiyar did not want to admit her defeat to a young boy. She asked for cold fruit. When the boy shook off some branches, the fruits fell on sand.

She picked up one ripe fruit and began to blow air over it to remove the sand. Then the boy told her that she asked for cold fruit and why did she pick a hot fruit (People blow air to make the food or drink to cool down before consuming in a rush and if the fruits were cool, then she did not blow air)? 3. TAMIL LANGUAGE Tamil is an ancient classical language and several claims that it was the first language of human civilization. It is used in Tamil Nadhu, South India and North Eastern Part of Sri Lanka. Later the language moved to several places with the movement of Tamil people.

It has 12 vowels (5 vowels are like in the English language and another five are harder form of the first five. Other two vowels are combined sound). There are 18 consonants in the Tamil language. In Tamil, words cannot be started with consonant. All the combinations of vowel and consonants are pre-formed and listed as alphabets where the pronunciation of Tamil words is reading the alphabet directly (No complexity involved in pronouncing the Tamil words). The combinations are 216 (18 times 12) and another letter is added (like therefore symbol) to make 247 (i. . (18+1) times (12+1)) letters which forms a matrix structure as shown below (no Tamil alphabets are shown in the Matrix). Foreign borrowings are occasionally used as some of the sounds are not available among the Tamil alphabets. Out of the 247 letters, many of them cannot be used in front of a word and some of the letters are never used in words at all. Thus the Auvaiyar’s alphabetic learning poem has limitation and the alphabets used by her are listed in the Table below (The first number represents Arthi Chudhi and the second . represent Konrai venthan). 13b /13b |1/1 |2/2 |3/3 | |Blameless Behaviour |Athi Chudi |2 words |109 | |Virtuous Vision |Konrai Venthan |4 words |91 | |Wholesome Wisdom |Muthurai |4 lines |30 | |Peaceful Path |Nalvazhi |4 lines |40 | The Chapter 6 presents a transformation from the direct translation (and not a literal translation).

I have doubt that any body can claim it the Translation. In this transformation, a title is given to each item in English. Chapter 6 also contains the original Tamil verses side by side. On the other hand, the following rules are adopted for interpretation (Chapter 5): • Arthi Chudhi in two words and Konrai Venthan in four words • There is no word limit for the other two but attempts were made to present them in simple form • Invocation, religious references, cultural references are removed. • Agriculture and other references to feudal society are odified • Wife is changed to spouse • Any references to and/or knowledge of Indian culture are customized to common culture • Some negative forms are presented in positive forms 4. 2 Arthi Chudhi It literally means Lord Siva (Chola kings too as they were in power) who wears garland made of (Thiru) Arthi Flower. There are 109 verses in the Athi Chudhi. Each one is made of two words. It is easy in Tamil Language to combine a few single words into a larger word and the two words of each Arthi Chudhi can be really expands into several words as presented by some publishers.

It is to be noted that many books contain 108 verses and some even very much less than that. This was interpreted (take to mean) Blameless Behavior. It means when children learns these and follow these principles in their life, no body can blame them. Arthi flower is small white flower and the name of the tree is Holy Mountain ebony or common mountain ebony. Some says Arthi belong to Bauhinia botanical family and others claim it belongs to ficus glomerata. 4. 3 Konrai Venthan God Siva (Chola kings) is dressed up with the garland made of Konrai flower and he is called as king of this flower.

Konrai Venthan is dedicated to God Siva. There are no verses for the 18 consonants letters and Konrai venthan is thus 18 numbers less than the Arthi Chudhi. Konrai Venthan is made of four words and provides a vision for life. Thus it is named as Virtuous Vision. Presentation and translation are similar to Arthi Chudhi. Konrai yields a shower of golden yellow flower and the tree is called Indian Laburnum. The tree also called Golden Shower tree and the botanical name is Cassia Fistula. 3 Muthurai There are thirty poems each made up of 4 lines.

The title’s direct translation is Elders advice or Mature Messages. This mainly deals with social issues where it suggests how the outcome could be in each action. By reading these poems, one will get an insight of others reaction for each social consequences, means to avoid frustration and provide the foresight before taking hard decisions. 4. 5 Nalvahi There are forty poems each made up of 4 lines. The title’s direct translation is good (or Peaceful) path. Poems are mainly deal with karma or out of the actions where results are totally unexpected way.

By reading the poems, one can realise a person’s limitations for achieving the desired results and avoiding detrimental effects to health by worrying, reducing regretfullness, realising that nothing foreever and bringing inner peace to overcome any distress and if necessary calling the names of the god for consolation. 5. 0 MORAL MANNERS 5. 1 Blameless Behaviour 1. Desire Righteousness 2. Subdue Temper 3. Share Sensibly 4. Congratulate Contributors 5. Abstain Boasting 6. Persist Efforts 7. Merit Scripts 8. Desist Begging 9. Offer Food 10. Conform Custom 11. Continue Learning 12. Suppress Envy 13.

Appraise Unquestionably 14. Report Realistically 15. Comfort Family 16. Bath Habitually 17. Converse Pleasantly 18. Observe Constraints 19. Associate Appropriately 20. Uphold Parents 21. Remember Gratitude 22. Observe Seasons 23. Stop Snatching 24. Perform Properly 25. Reduce Risks 26. Sleep Comfortably 27. Never Vilify 28. Uphold Decency 29. Acquire Skill 30. Discharge Duty 31. Never Oversleep 32. Never Scold 33. Protect Lives 34. Be Considerate 35. Remove Incivility 36. Preserve Personality 37. Continue Collaboration 38. Renounce Ruining 39. Listen Oration 40. Extend Expertise 41. Exclude Plundering 2. Discard Unlawfulness 43. Stop Abusing 44. Abide Laws 45. Follow Intellectuals 46. No Misgivings 47. Remember Ethics 48. Never Insult 49. Never Gamble 50. Accomplish Accurately 51. Collaborate Known 52. Maintain Respect 53. Speak Sharply 54. Avoid Laziness 55. Uphold Esteem 56. Offer Gifts 57. Gracefully Worship 58. Renounce Immorality 59. Shun Suffering 60. Scrutinize Beforehand 61. Respect God 62. Concur Countrymen 63. Discard Imprudence 64. Preserve Tradition 65. Forget Failures 66. Pursue Commendable 67. Implement Consensually 68. Maintain Esteem 69. Swim Safely 70. Discard Inedible 71.

Peruse Widely 72. Cultivate Food 73. Behave Decently 74. Understand Others 75. Respect Disagreement 76. Prevent Infection 77. Suppress Contemptible 78. Take care 79. Speak accurately 80. Desire prominence 81. Encourage Reliant 82. Refurbish Farms 83. Approach Astute 84. Annihilate Unawareness 85. Dissociate Dishonest 86. Preserve Wealth 87. No Provocation 88. Restraint Mind 89. Avoid Antagonist 90. Exclude Exaggerations 91. Consume Moderately 92. Eschew Battlefields 93. Dissociate wicked 94. Accompany Spouse 95. Acknowledge Astute 96. Blacklist Brothel 97. Converse Decisively 98. Relinquish Passion 9. Avoid Challenging 100. Avoid Arguing 101. Seek Skill 102. Aim Blissfulness 103. Be Noble 104. Harmoniously Coexist 105. Curb Rebuking 106. Act Compassionately 107. Rise Early 108. Detach Enemies 109. Justify Impartially 5. 2 Virtuous Vision 1. Parents are Visible Gods 2. Peaceful Prayer Pacifies Profoundly 3. Spouse Loyalty is Virtue 4. Evil Enjoys Miser’s Fortune 5. Curb your food consumption 6. Provoking Public destroys devastatingly 7. Provide importance to knowledge 8. Gifted Kids Act Promptly 9. Whatever Obstructions Pursue Perpetually 10. Same Spouse For Ever 11. Decency is Above Divine 12.

Envious Talk ruins Wealth 13. Thriftily Thrive More Food 14. Spouse Loyalty is Genuineness 15. Women Safeguard is Protection 16. Forget Swiftly If Unachievable 17. Talk Politely to Anyone 18. Revealing Faults Reduces Relationships 19. Avoid Confrontation Even Dominating 20. Dissociate Those Hurting You 21. Handling Hardship Produces Prosperity 22. Knowledge is Above Wealth 23. Known by Boss Benefits 24. Rage Radiates Resentments Received 25. Nobody likes Inaccurate Humiliation 26. Cheerful Family Delight Descendants 27. Renowned Scholar Glorifies Mother 28. God Worship Strengthen Spirituality 29.

Pioneering Products Postulate Prosperity 30. Cohesive Cooperation Contribute Cheerfulness 31. Gamble or Squabble Upsets 32. Ignoring Penance Fetches Delusion 33. Regular Sleeping is Indispensable 34. Offer Food Before Eat 35. Wealthy Accomplish Virtuous Pleasures 36. Spiritless Wander with Misery 37. Father’s Guidance is Supreme 38. Mother is a God 39. Evenwith Diligently Acquire Treasure 40. Implacable Irritation Creates Hostility 41. Unsympathetic Spouse is Misery 42. Spouse Aggravation is Torturous 43. Depraved Deeds Devastate Discernment 44. Shrinking Savings Spoil catastrophically 45. Save Energy Using Insulation 6. Entrepreneurial Enhances Than Serving 47. Refrain from Revealing Privacy 48. Adverse Associations is Harmful 49. Prosperous Nation Overcomes Conflicts 50. Honorable Intellectuals Uphold Undertakings 51. Natural Water Avoid Vulnerability 52. Act after Adequate Analysis 53. Employing Ethics from Guidebooks 54. Cruelty Affects Your Conscience 55. No Success without Willpower 56. Never Insult Even Disadvantaged 57. Even weakest Can Impress 58. Eating Meat is Sin 59. Plants Growth Indicates Efforts 60. Act Timely Even Consumption 61. Abstain Adultery is Righteousness 62. Mother’s Milk is Paramount 63.

Avoid Sin Plus Meat 64. Uncivilized Behaves Indecent Manner 65. Self Realization Surpasses Sentiment 66. Innocence is Women’s Attribution 67. Gentle Manners Commands Respect 68. Shun All Malevolence Activities 69. Earning Enhances Enjoyable Eating 70. Enjoy Meals with Guests 71. Nothing Inhabits Without Raining 72. Raining Expected After Lightening 73. No Progress without Leader 74. Every Action Has Reaction 75. Seniors Guidance is Valuable 76. Sleep Completely for Comfort 77. Hardly Earned Never Dwindle 78. Steer clear of Prostitutes 79. Ignoring Counsel Causes Devastation 80. Intellectuals Exercise Complete Calmness 1. Control Expenditure within Budget 82. Drought Make Complete Hardship 83. No Graciousness without Hospitality 84. Valiant Comradeship Shelters You 85. Resolute Forever against Begging 86. Perseverance Steers to Prosperity 87. Innocence is Always Harmless 88. Avoid Boss Whilst Annoyed 89. Respect All Sacred Shrines 90. Sleep Comfortably on Bed 91. Reading Books Improves Manners 5. 3 Wholesome Wisdom 1. If you do your duty, there will be a return one day for that 2. Selfless deems the care forever while selfish memory is very short 3. All will end up with discontent unless they occurs at right time 4.

Whatever happens to people, their characters unaffected 5. Success occurs only at favourable time and planing should reflect that 6. Those having principles will rather die instead of humiliation 7. Knowledge, prosperity and nature depends on education, compassion and surroundings respectively 8. Plenty of benefits are there when associated with admirable 9. All will be disastrous if linked to evils 10. Every body will be benefitted when they are allied to honourables 11. Even gifted people needs subordinates to complete huge tasks 12. Quality of the items is totally independent of physical magnitude 13.

A tree is respected better than a person who is unable to read 14. Illiterate who potures as a wise will be exposed while converse 15. Helping to ungrateful is very dangerous 16. Misjudging the power of the modest would be a serious danger 17. Real relatives will never depart you when you have trouble 18. Attitude remains same during hardship for nobles but not for ohers 19. It is not wealth but fate control the enjoyment 20. Your siblings may spoil your interest but strangers may help you 21. A dutiful spouse makes the home sweet; otherwise it is like a jungle 22. Success comes from fortune and not the way you desire 23.

Attitude determines the forgivness where worst is low and excellent is noble 24. Learned associates with learned while uneducated links to uneducated 25. Guilty conscious people hide out while innocent mixed with people 26. Scholars are admired at any place, but a king has limitations 27. Irritation could initiate from the actions of associates 28. When king’s wealth is reduced, his kindness won’t be affected 29. Nothing is forever 30. Wise will show compassionate even to those who are awful to them. 5. 4 Peaceful Path 1. According to believing in India, the law of karma-based on individual past actions will govern the life.

Thus always do goodness and shun sin. 2. According to ethical manuscripts, human beings are classified into two types – considerate and inconsiderate. Note: India has a different caste system (classification) and the intention of the verse is to dismiss that. 3. Knowing that our body is transitory, perform charity whenever you have wealth, then you will reach heaven. 4. It is possible for anybody to accomplish anything when favored by the virtue of good karma and otherwise nothing is achievable. 5. Do your duty. Outcome of your action is not in your hand and thus do not suffer or get distressed 6.

Your success is based on your virtue and independent from others virtue. 7. Sages realized impermanency of the life in body and they live without any desire and do not converse anything unrelated. 8. Honor will be everlasting and wealth will disappear easily. Thus people should achieve wealth in honest way. 9. Whatever the difficulties are, the respectable people always assist the needy who contact them 10. Death is permanent which will come to us one day. Practice charity and live contented. 11. It is impossible to live without food. 12. Self employment on primary production is the safest employment and all others could be lost at any time,

NOTE: The verse was written before industrial production (During feudal society or agriculture society). 13. No Body on this earth can change the course of life 14. Death is better than the shameful survival by begging for food 15. Remove the fears in the mind due to fate by distracting the thinking using god name 16. Goodness depends on surrounding, actions, compassion and maintaining integrity 17. People cannot prosper in this birth if no charity is done in the previous births. 18. Niggards only contributes when pressured, otherwise even to love ones, nothing will be donated 19. For a meal we distress our selves beyond the limits 0. Everything will be destroyed one we associate with prostitution 21. Everything will come our way if we have good heart 22. Earn and enjoy and save reasonably 23. Every type of destruction will come if biased verdict delivered 24. It is disgrace when you don’t have good wife, kind siblings and city without water 25. When spending exceeds revenue, then the life is full of troubles 26. Nothing will be in the mind when somebody become hungry 27. Every thing will not occur the way we want and all of them are fate 28. More the greediness bigger the worries and thus need to be contented with what we have 29.

Every body wishes to identify themselves with philanthropist 30. No way to change the fate and have to suffer (Can be reduce by thinking god names) 31. It is shameful to deviate from standard norms whether verses, conduct, courage and partnership 32. Wealth is not stable and when you have that, offer assistance to needy and gain positive mind 33. In general, you will not win using harsh words, but there will be a better opportunity to achieve something when you use kind word 34. Without wealth, it is hardly influence in this world 35. There are people who have acumen and some others even advised, cannot realize the situation 6. In several instances, own actions cause self destruction 37. There is no way to overcome fate, without worrying the outcome, desire for salvation 38. Self-realization and reach the god is the peaceful way of life 39. Achieving every thing at right time 40. Learn the above good guidance and reengineer your life style 6. ETHICAL ETIQUETTE 6. 1 Righteous Restraint (????????? ) Invocation (?????? ???????? ) Lord Ganapathy who sat on the lap of his father (God Siva who wears Garland made of Arthi flowers), we oft and oft praise and worship him. ????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ????. 1. Righteousness

Wish to Perform Righteously ???? ??? ???????? 2. Temper Calm Down Your Irritation ?????? ????? 3. Sharing Don’t Deny To Share When You Can Afford ??????? ?????? 4. Contribution Don’t Hinder Others Contributions ???? ????????? 5. Boasting Don’t Proclaim Your Worthiness ?????? ????????? 6. Perseverance Don’t give up perseverance ??????? ???????? 7. Scripts Don’t Disregard Numbers and Alphabets ??? ??????? ?????? 8. Begging Begging is Disgraceful ?????? ???????? 9. Food Offer alms before you eat ???? ????? ??? 10. Custom Conform to the customs ???????? ????? 11. Learning Never cease learning ?????? ??????? 12. Envy

Never express envy ?????? ?????? 13. Appraisal Don’t shorten the quantity of grains whilst trading ????? ?????????? 14. Reporting Never report eyewitness incorrectly ????? ????? ???????? 15. Family Accept your kins even rarely useful ??? ??????? 16. Bathing Take bath on Saturdays after applying gingerly oil ??? ?????? 17. Converse Converse Pleasantly ???? ?? ??? 18. Constraints Don’t build exceptionally huge house ???? ?? ???? ????? 19. Association Associate appropriately after acquaintance ????????????? ?????? 20. Parents Uphold your father and mother ????? ?????? ???? 21. Gratitude Never forget gratitude ????? ????? 22. Promptness Cultivate in the suitable season ???????? ????? ???? 23. Snatch Never eat from the wealth of the snatched land ??? ??????? ??????? 24. Proper Never Act improperly ?????? ????? ?????? 25. Risk Refrain from snake-charming ????? ????? 26. Sleeping Sleep on soft cotton mattress ????? ??????? ?????? 27. Vilify Never speak deceitfully ??????? ?????? 28. Decency Never do anything indecently ???? ????? ?????? 29. Skill Learn while young ???????? ??? 30. Duty Don’t forget your duty ???? ?????? 31. Oversleeping Don’t oversleep ??????? ????? 32. Scold Never consider using coarse expressions ?????? ?? 3. Lives Undertake to protect lives ??????? ?????? 34. Considerate Live with consideration for others ??????? ?? ???? 35. Civility Remove Incivility ?????? ?????? 36. Personality Do not alter your good quality ?????? ???????? 37. Collaboration Don’t split from collaboration ?????????????? 38. Ruining Refrain from Ruining Others ????????? ??? 39. Oration Try to learn from oration ?????? ????? 40. Assisting Never deny assisting others using your skill ?????? ?????? 41. Plundering Never consider plundering ?????? ?????????? 42. Forbidden Abolish forbidden games ???????? ??? 43. Abusing Remove Insulting Words ???? ????? 44. Abide Obey the law of the land ????? ???? ???? 45. Follow Associate with the wise ???????? ???????? 46. Misgivings Never Tell Deceptively ????????? ?????? 47. Ethics Never Forget Good Conduct ?????? ?????? 48. Insult Never State anything provocatively ????????? ???????? 49. Gamble Dislike gambling ???? ?????????? 50. Performance Complete your performance correctly ?????? ????????? ???? 51. Collaboration Know the participant before collaboration ??????? ??????? ???? 52. Respect Don’t roam around to lose respect ?? ???? ???????? 53. Sharply Never speak without sharpness ???? ?????? ????? 54. Laziness

Never wander with laziness ???????? ???????? 55. Esteem Physically position to uphold your esteem ??????? ???? ???? 56. Gifts Wish to offer gifts ?????? ???????? 57. Dedication Dedicate to God “Vishnu” ???????????? ????? ???? 58. Immorality Refrain from Immorality ?????? ?????? 59. Suffering Don’t let misery reaches you ????????????? ???? ?????? 60. Scrutinize Scrutinize Before Proceed ?????? ???? ???? 61. God Never Despise God ??????? ?????? 62. Harmony Live as others do ????????? ????? ???? 63. Imprudence Don’t follow any stupid advice from your wife ????? ???? ?????? 64. Tradition Don’t forget your traditions ????? ?????? 65. Failures Never stick to any fading deal ?????? ??????? 66. Pursue Stick to anything gainful ????? ????????? 67. Consensually Implement things acceptable to majority ???? ????? ???? 68. Esteem Don’t plunge from your reputation ???????? ???????? 69. Risk No sporting activities in rough waters ???? ?????????? 70. Inedible Don’t consume spoil food ?????? ??????? 71. Peruse Read many books ???? ?? ??? 72. Cultivate Cultivate paddy ???? ????? ???? 73. Behave Behave straight forward ?????? ????? 74. Hurting Never hurt others ?????? ??????? 75. Disagreement Never discuss unimportance issues ????? ??????? 76.

Sickness Never exposed to infections ???????? ???? ?????? 77. Contemptible Never exchange contemptible ??????? ?????? 78. Dangerous Never fool around with any snake ???????? ?????? 79. Informing Never inform incorrectly ???????? ???????? 80. Prominence Follow the correct cause to bring fame ???? ??? ???? 81. Reliance Support those who paise you ????????????? ?????? ???? 82. Farm Earn for living by developing land ???? ???????? ??? 83. Astute Win the sympathy of the Astute ?????????? ?????? ???? 84. Unawareness Eradicate the lack of knowledge ????? ?????? 85. Naughty Never associate with the naughty ??????? ???????? 6. Wealth Work to flourish your wealth ??????????? ?????? ???? 87. War Never be a warrior ?????? ?????? ???????? 88. Mind Don’t let the mind to be perturbed ???? ????????? 89. Antagonist Make sure that no chance to your foes ???????????? ???? ?????? 90. Exaggerations Don’t tell with exaggeration ???????? ???????? 91. Consume Never desire to consume excessively ?????? ?????????? 92. Battlefields Never Visit War Zones ??????????? ???????? 93. Wicked Never be in agreement with the wicked ??????????? ???????? 94. Spouse Reside with your own sweet wife ?????? ??????? ???? ???? 95. Prophecy Listen to the advice of prophets ??? ?????? ???? ???? 96. Brothel Never visit to the residence of prostitutes ?? ???????? ??? ???? 97. Decisively Converse decisively without being suspected ??????? ?? ???? 98. Passion Never be attracted by the excitement ??????? ???? 99. Challenge Never boast your valour ?????? ?????? 100. Argument Avoid arguing with wise ???? ?????????? 101. Skill Desire to acquire skill ?????? ???????? 102. Blissfulness Pursue Ethics to Attain Blissfulness ???? ??? ???? 103. Noble Ascertain to be a noble ????????? ??? 104. Coexist Coexist harmoniously with your fellow citizens ?????? ???? ???? 105. Rebuke Don’t rebuke bluntly ???????? ?????? 106. Gain Don’t assist with the intention of getting benefits ?????? ???? ?????? 107. Waking Wake up before dawn ??????? ?????? ??? 108. Enemy Never befriended with the adversary ????????? ?????? 109. Justice Never give biased verdict ???? ???????? 6. 2 Complacent Conduct (?????? ??????? ) INVOCATION (?????? ???????? ) We worship the sacred feet of Lord Ganapathy who is the son of God Siva who adorned with golden shower flowers of Cassia Fistula. ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? 1. God Mother and father are first known Gods ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? 2. Worship

Worship at Temple is an excellent habit ????? ??????? ??????? ????? 3. Family Righteousness act without Living as one with spouse is not good Moral ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? 4. Miser Wicked Grabs the Misers Wealth ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? 5. Food Limit the food consumption is the beauty of the wife ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? 6. Clash If Confronted with Villagers, then Destroy Everything Including Roots ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? 7. Knowledge Numbers and Letters are the Two Eyes ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? 8. Children Children are dearest when they act without reminders from parents ??? ?????? ???? ?????? 9. Obstruction Even If You Needs to Beg, Continue to Complete It ???? ???????? ?????? ???? 10. Permanent Marry and Live Together With the Same Person at One Place for Ever ???????? ????? ??????? ??? 11. Conduct Good Conduct is More Important for Priest than Chanting Mantras ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????? 12. Envy Speak Jealously Destroy Progress ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? 13. Food Prudently Acquire Grains and Cash ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? 14. Loyalty Chastity for a woman is honest obedience to husband ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? 15. Protection The preservation of chastity is the duty of women ???? ???? ??????????? ???? 16. Unattainable Once it is impossible to achieve, forget that immediately ???????????? ??????? ?? 17. Politeness Speak Politely Even to the Underprivileged ?????? ??????? ??? ??? 18. Relationship Fault-finding Habits Eliminate Even Relationship ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? 19. Domination Don’t Boast Bravery Even If You Have Sharp Arrows ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? 20. Hurt Break Links with Those Carry Out Evil Acts to You ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? 21. Determination Resilience during Adversity will Create Prosperity ???????? ????? ???????? ????? 22. Knowledge

How People Make Economic Decisions Paper

Week 1 How People Make Economic Decisions Paper How People Make Economic Decisions Paper The science of economics consists of constantly analyzing the choices which consumers and producers make when deciding how to use the limited resources available to society with the objective of achieving their goals (Hubbard & O’Brien, 2010, p. 4). This constant analysis is important for society because of scarcity, which basically means that unfortunately the resources available to people are not infinite so it is in everyone’s best interest that these limited resources are used in the most efficient way possible.

What economics does is provide a mean to measure how efficient individual consumers, private organizations and government agencies are at using these valuable resources in pursuit of their individual goals. This paper will look to illustrate the three main assumptions behind the science of economics which explain how people make their economic decisions. The principles to be discussed are: people are rational, people respond to economic incentives, and that optimal decisions are made at the margin.

When economists say that they assume that people are rational, they are not making the statement that all people always make the right decisions that is best for them or that they know everything there is to know about said decision. They are saying that they believe consumers and private and public entities make their decisions after using all available information to them and analyzing what the costs and benefits of these decisions will be.

Since a rational person should always weigh the costs and benefits of their decisions and act according to what should result more beneficial, economists like to assume that people in general are and act rationally as far as economics is concerned. For example, from an economist’s point of view when someone thinks about purchasing some product they will first use the information available to them of how much money they have available and how much the product costs.

Then they will analyze the benefits of purchasing this product with the costs, which in this case could be not being able to purchase something to eat later or put gas in the car for the ride home. Ultimately they would make a rational decision based on this analysis, proving the assumption. The second assumption from which economic principles are based on is that people respond to economic incentives.

People in general will only act if there is something in it for them, be it because of “religious belief, envy, or compassion” (Hubbard & O’Brien, 2010, p. 5), however economists believe that people (consumer and firms) act mostly on economic incentives. For example, upon purchasing a high definition flat screen television often times one is offered an extended in store warranty of one year for a certain price, where if anything should happen to the television set within that time frame it is simply replaced for a new one by the store.

Even though the chances of it breaking down within the first year of purchase and use are small, many people decide to pay the warranty which can come out to several hundred dollars, because of the economic incentive that if it was to break for whatever reason the customer could just trade it in for a brand new one. The third assumption made in economics is that optimal decisions are made at the margin. In the realm of economics the word marginal is used to mean “extra” or “additional” (Hubbard & O’Brien, 2010, p. ), and this is important because economists believe that all decisions consumers and firms make carry with them a marginal benefit and marginal cost. A marginal benefit would be the additional benefit received from a certain decision while marginal cost would be the additional costs to making the same decision. For example, if the author of this paper desired the marginal benefit of impressing the professor he could have made the essay ten pages long with a full page of references.

However, this decision would have had the marginal cost of dedicating so much time to this one essay that he might have to sacrifice the quality of his work for the discussion questions and the learning team essay which also had to be sent. Economists believe that if the best or optimal decision is to be made then a middle ground must be found where the marginal benefit of a decision is equal to the marginal cost of making it. As can be seen many of the assumptions used by economists for creating the principles of economics are concepts which are used in everyday life of rdinary people, not just large private firms or by the government. The three key economic ideas of people are rational, people respond to economic incentives, and optimal decisions are made at the margin may seem like common sense after analysis, but they are still important to know and keep in mind because they are the basis on which the social science known as economics was formed. Without the study of economics there would be no way to ensure that society is putting its highly valuable yet scarce resources to its best use. References Hubbard, R. & O’Brien, A. (2010). Economics (3rd ed. ). Boston, MA: Pearson Hall.

International Globalization Marketing Plan of Batik

[pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic] Beautiful Colors of Malaysia……. [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic] INTERNATIONAL GLOBALIZATION MARKETING PLAN Of BATIK EMPAT KAWAN SDN BHD ( 804520-X ) C-7-06, 2ND Floor, Block C, SME Technopreneur Centre Cyberjaya 22700 Jalan Usahawan 2, 63000 Cyberjaya Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia Tel: 603-88888888 Fax: 603-81000000 Email: [email protected] com Contents ? Executive Summary ? Mission ,Vision and Objectives ? 1. 0 Company Background 1. Company Abroad 2. Organisational Chart 3. Features and Benefit 2. Product and Services 3. 0 Market Analysis 3. 1 Competitive Advantage and Barriers to Entry 3. 2 Ownership 3. 3 Legal Entity 3. 4 Competition 3. 5 Market Size 3. 6 Target Customer 3. 7 Trends 3. 8 Communications 4. 0 Financial Viability 4. 1 Sources and Use of Funds Expansion 4. 2 Financial Plan 4. 3 Financial Plant 4. 4 Use of Fund 4. 5 Income statement Projection 4. 6 Cash Flow Projection 4. 7 Balance Sheet 5. 0 Sales and Marketing Strategy 6. 0 SWOT Analysis 7. 0 Goals 8. 0 Conclusion “ To be a World Class Provider of BATIK Garment Industry ”

Our mission is to establish a Global Batik Boutique industry with world-class quality in fashion design to support corporate clients and stylist society of upper market. We would like to be known as an industry driven by social values. We strive to be a “Choice of Retailer” in developing long-term Batik business relationships with our customers, which are founded on our ability to help identify the style-fashion and recommend the best wares and look’s for our customers. We strive for continuous improvement in providing “New Design” and “Good Quality” materials selection through a “Right-on-Time ” fashion delivery.

Batek Empat Kawan Sdn Bhd need to grow their revenue by exporting Batik products and expanding into new markets segmentation. With faster communication, transportation and financial flows, the company is planning penetrate into United Kingdom Consumer market on establishment of Batik made garment products . 1. 0 Company Background Batek Empat Kawan Sdn Bhd (BEK Sdn Bhd ) is a Malaysian owned company, a batik fashion and boutique consulting firm head quarters in Cyberjaya, Malaysia, specializing in all kind of batik design garment products. BEK Sdn Bhd incorporated in 2001, has an Sales Office and Manufacturing plant at Kajang.

Then in 2007 we have moved into SME Technopreneur Centre, Cyberjaya. In end of 2007 our employees nearly reaching 200 peoples. BEK Sdn Bhd Employees Work Force Table |Employees Growth |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 |2007 | |No. Years | | | | | | | | |Direct Laborers |6 |10 |40 |40 |100 |150 |198 |

BEK Sdn Bhd has domain expertise in batik design. Our team consists of multi-skilled professionals, with high creative talents and inspirations from various platforms. BEK’s management is drawn from various garment industries and their presence to the company creates wealth of experience and an unceasing flow of ideas to help us identify client needs and new areas of business and industry growth. BEK’s employees provide the experience and tactical excellence that are needed to achieve our aggressive goals of satisfying clients requirements both today and in the future.

The batik manufacturing division of BEK with our alliances to Indonesian batik, possesses world-class expertise in the batik garment industries domain, covering design & development and manufacturing supports of Batik Products for men and women clothing merchandiser for local and international market. 1. 1 The Management Team Mr. Shivabalan, Mr. Sanjay, Mr. Md. Yusni and Mr. Goby are the company’s Board of Directors. They spell out the vision and strategic direction of BEK and oversee the company expansion. The fours Directors are co-owners and person’s who are responsible for the growth of BEK Sdn.

Bhd as today. Mr. Sivabalan and Mr. Md. Yusni has worked more ten years in the retail industry, including four years as the manager of an antique furniture shop. The earned a MBA degree in Marketing from College of Business, UUM. Mr. Sanjay experience lies in the fashion industry. He’s worked with designers, wholesalers and retailers for roughly 10 years. Sanjay holds a MBA in fashion merchandising from College of Design, UPM Mr. Goby is had an experience in managing a garment factory as an Senior Operation Manager for 15 years. 1. 2. Batik’s History Batik, pronounced ‘Bah-Teak’ is a technique used on textile.

The fabrics are hand-dyed using wax as a dye repellent. Melted wax is first applied to the fabric to outline the areas that are to be free of dye. There are many methods that can be used to apply the liquid wax. The most common way is to brush it or directly pouring the wax onto the fabric. The molten wax is left to cool, it hardens and penetrates into the fabric. The fabric is then soaked in dye. The wax prevents dye from penetrating onto the fabric and therefore keeps those areas of fabric in their original colour. In Malaysia, there are two major batik types: – a) Hand Drawn Batik designs are drawn on fabric with hot liquid wax, using a metal object called “canting”, then with a brush to paint the dyes within the outlines. With the brush, shades and multi-hued designs are created. b) Block Printed Batik – instead of using the “canting”, a copper block or a wooden stamp with artistically patterned bottom is used. The block is dipped into wax and printed onto the fabric, which will then be dip-dyed. The wax will then be removed and batik with a single colour is produced. For multi colours and more complex block-printed batik, different blocks are used and de-waxing has to be done many times.

Many types of fabrics can be used including cotton, rayon, voile and silk. The patterns are usually floral and geometrical motifs, arranged in an assortment of layouts, depending on the current trends. 1. 2 Our line of Products The Batik clothing fashion and retail industry tends to be overly youth focused. However, by closely following generational fashion trends as well as our own customers’ purchasing preferences, we will tailor our inventory to meet the specific needs of our clientele. We will solely focus on the styles, colors and cheer-up batik fits to our customers.

Some of our Products in the Market [pic] [pic] [pic] Women & Men Cloths [pic] [pic] Batik Garment [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Women Wares [pic] 2. The Spin of Plans Our confidence and excellent team backup drove us to where we are now and finally we have an excellent business model and good credentials to stake claim to establish ourselves as a global Batik garment merchandiser. We have firm plans to set up a Batik made of Product Boutique shop and business offices in United Kingdom . As for this purpose BEK Batik Boutique Ltd. company was established in 2008.

A join venture company between United Kingdom local partner and BEK Sdn Bhd. BEK Sdn Bhd holds a majority shares of 85 percent and the local JV partner hold shares of 15 percent. We have extend our services to supplier of Batik products, such as men and women ware clothing into United Kingdom merchandisers outlets and stores. The Batik made products is cater for upper market and stylist living group of peoples. We have a firm plans in setting up the company to penetrate Batik made of Products market in United Kingdom . [pic] UK Based Organisation Shares Structure 2. 1UK Based Company Establishment

BEK Batik Boutique Ltd established in 2008 which focus on sales fashionable clothing for men and women of younger generation. BEK Boutique was located in downtown of Sunderland, which is a popular retirement and tourist destination. While our initial goal is to open Batik made of Products boutique, expansion plans include potentially franchising our retail store and/or building a well-recognized brand name. In turn, we would hope to penetrate a sizable portion of the online retail market. 1. Demographics South East Asia dominance the Batik manufacturing market industries. There no much Batik merchandiser in Europe and other part of the

World. Related to this, the Batik market was monopoly by Malaysian and Indonesian. The quality of the Batik make us better be off compared with the Indonesian. The summer season in UK will our market focus especially along the beach sites. 2. Socioeconomic of UK The peoples of UK’s has a high purchase power, capacity for the kind of unique products such as Batik, etc. The upper-end living society prefer to be stylist and assertive at newer design of cloths. They are looking at the “latest design cloth in town”. Its has influence the majority of younger generations of UK. Company Location in UK [pic] 3. 0 The Strategic Positioning Plans

BEK Batik Boutique will be located in downtown Sunderland, United Kingdom. Our company is a retail establishment selling fashionable men’s and women’s clothing. Our business operates within the retail industry and is classified under NAICS code 448120 – men’s & women’s clothing stores. The Company is aimed at providing summer time wares and beach site wares of batik products or cloths. As the company’s founders and Foreign partner , found that UK’s current clothing -wear market is missing the mark. In fact, most clothing shops for the 55+ set are still selling clothes that our grandmothers would have worn.

As our younger generation population likes modern cloths with unique design. We recognize the need for UK’s peoples that’s BEK Batik Boutique caters to the up-beat, fashion and design. 3. 1 UK Market Acceptance Our key assets are our co-owners, BEK and Joanna Jensen, who bring tremendous experience and relationships to this business. Once BEK Batik Boutique is launched, our primary asset will be our brand, which will convey style, quality and a great shopping experience. In the long term, it is this brand that will separate BEK Batik Boutique from other retailers both locally and nationally.

BE Batik Boutique will sell a combination of widely recognized name brands as well as batik clothing lines from select fashion designers. We will closely follow generational fashion trends as well as our own customers’ purchasing preferences. Moreover, we will tailor our inventory to meet the needs of our “batik” clientele. Solely focusing on the styles, colors and fits to cheer up the female figure will be our specialty. While apparel, such as batik business clothing, casual wear, tie and formal wear will be our main staple, we will also offer some accessories such as scarves, and hats.

Profits will be earned via the sale of our merchandise. Our pricing structure will remain flexible, as we will implement suggested retail pricing on common brands as well as the standard practice of key stoning prices. Additionally, we will utilize a value-based pricing structure, which measures the value of our products to our customers such as easy access, quality, customer service and styles flattering to our target consumer. End of season sales, holiday and overstock sales, multi-buy savings and promotional coupons will be implemented at strategic intervals. 3. Global Commercial Policy and Legal Compliances We govern by WTO requirements and we comply to all its rules and regulations. UK government does not see us as a new merchandiser exploiting host county to the exclusive benefits of their capitalist-imperialist home countries. We have gone to UK as an JV with the local panther down there. Although we hold the majority share in the company but we share our core value and by employing the local to manage over day to day business activities. We adhere to the local government policy and contribute as an business tax of 45% from our yearly net profits. 3. . 1 Strategic Implementations Plan BEK Batik Boutique recognizes the importance of marketing. And to that end, we plan to promote our retail business with an ambitious, targeted marketing campaign, which will include a grand opening event, local media coverage, print advertising and a direct-mail campaign. Our goal is to keep our marketing budget to no more than 5% of our gross annual sales, and we will collaborating with local organizations such as the Chamber of Commerce and Downtown Merchants Association. 1. Facilities Presently, BEK Batik Boutique does not have a bricks-and-mortar location.

However, we have identified an ideal spot in the downtown district of Edinburd . The gorgeous area includes numerous restaurants, an art gallery, coffee shop, candy store and a picturesque park in the town square. We have signed letter of intend, a three-year lease for a 1,700 square foot building at $13 per square foot. Comparable properties are renting for $20,000 pound/Year. Working with the property owner and the City of Edinburd downtown Redevelopment Committee, we have secured a $70,000 pounds grant to beautify the facade of the building to include painting, signage and a new awning.

Only slight internal renovations will be required – such as the installation of dressing rooms and decorative items. This grant will given upon we sign the a contract to lease the building. When considering the addition of wall mounts for merchandise, multi-level clothing displays as well as creative floor planning, this facility is large enough to support future growth. Additionally, we will be able to conduct all aspects of our business from this location. This includes deliveries and shipments, inventory management and administrative duties such as finance, buying and marketing. 4. 0 Market Competition

In Sunderland, there are no direct competitors offering our unique Batik garments specifically. In the Downtown District, the shops most closely competing with BEK Batik Boutique are as follows: • Robita Boutique, which targets a younger demographic and specializes in natural fiber clothing. They also carry local art and jewelry. • Caddy Corner Kids, which targets parents shopping for children, specializes in children’s clothing, accessories and toys. • Kati Kouture, which targets younger women, specializes in offering industrial chic clothing with “classic lines and a punk gothic edge. • Marjorie Joe’s Fashion & Gifts targets older women within our target demographic, but specializes in the more homemade, old-fashioned style clothing. • Petal Place Boutique targets women within our target demographic as well, but they specialize in an affordable, folksy style of clothing with handmade shawls and embroidered shirt sets. • Second Time Around targets women and may overlap our target demographic slightly. However, they specialize in consignment clothing.

There is one Asian-store within a 60-mile radius of Sunderland. The store is similar to Wal-Mart in that it sells lesser quality items at lower price. But there are two chain department stores. They sell men’s, women’s and children’s clothing along with home accents, electronics and appliances. While familiarity is comforting, industry research indicates increasing frustration with the inferior quality, sub par customer service and vastness of Asian-stores. Not to mention, the inept sales staff and lack of selection often found at department stores. . 1Features & Benefits One key feature that separates BEK Batik Boutique from all other local boutiques and chain department stores in the area is our commitments to providing men and women of the cheer-up Batik generation stylish, quality clothing options. Because our primary concern will be ensuring our consumers are happy with the fit and style of their purchase, we will provide products tailored to all shapes and sizes of women. In addition, we will make every effort to have petite and plus size versions of our merchandise in stock.

If they are not in stock, ordering them will be easy, cheap and efficient. Further, BEK Batik Boutique will not just be a store that sells clothes. Our clientele will benefit from an experienced, knowledgeable sales staff. Out of the gate, our goal is to implement a superior customer service system. Beyond our friendly reception and an inviting atmosphere, BEK Batik Boutique will also offer customers fashion information and advice. Our trained personnel will provide counsel that women simply cannot find at other clothing stores.

The service will be likened to a beautician who offers advice on what hair styles best complement his/her client’s face. Our hip and qualified fashion-industry expertise will ensure our customers walk away with the perfect outfit. 2. Competitive advantage / barriers to entry To date, our primary competitive advantage is the absence of any store like ours in the Sunderland areas. In addition, company co-owner, Joanna Jensen, has worked in the fashion industry for more than 20 years. Her experience includes working with apparel retailers, clothing wholesalers, garment manufacturers, and fashion designers.

She understands the fashion industry and knows how to spot the latest trends. While there is no guarantee a competitor will locate within our area, we have no doubt in our fashion sense, outstanding customer service and quality products. In turn we will quickly establish BEK Batik Boutique as the place for lady fits batik shop. Also, we would be the only niche fashion retail-store for hip and older women. While other stores offer some style equivalents, they are not focused solely on the original wool cloth generation. We are, and therefore, have a istinct competitive advantage in our niche. Our supplier relationships and exclusive product offerings will prevent future competitors from entering the market as a competitor. Also, it takes time to build a retail store, and by the time a competitor attempts to compete with us directly, we will have already established a strong customer base. 5. 0Product and Batik Market Development We are currently working with several apparel wholesalers, garment manufacturers and two freelance fashion designers to assemble our inventory.

We are also working with city economic-development officials to secure all required permits and occupational licensees. Once financing is secured, we will move ahead with the facade renovation, as well as purchasing inventory, retail displays, and office supplies. Prior to the grand opening of BEK Batik Boutique, we will schedule an event with the Chamber of Commerce and commence with pre-publicity flyers, advertising and additional marketing activities. 5. 1Developments As our company grows and our Batik boutique shop earns a positive reputation, several opportunities will open to us.

And we are considering some options already. Should we choose to remain a small local boutique, we will develop and grow our company by increasing existing clothing lines and expanding our selection to include additional products such as swim wear, lingerie, or sportswear. Within five years, we will assess the potential for franchising our stores in select locations. Additionally, as we build our business, we plan to simultaneously develop an online BEK Batik Boutique. The power and ease of an online storefront is obvious to us, and we plan to develop one quickly and efficiently.

We also see the potential for regional and/or national expansion at some point. 2. Target Customer BEK Batik Boutique is a business-to-consumer retail company. Men and Female Batik lover are our clear target customers. However, we do realize that we will likely attract some younger women with our peripheral products (handbags, scarves, etc. ). Moreover, we expect a portion of our products to catch on with the younger generations. It’s important that we do not offer products that are exclusive to the older audience. Having said that, there are currently about 75 million people living in the Sunderland .

A Batik lover is better described as the generation born between the years 1970 and 2000. About half of this population is women. While those born in the 1960’s are still slightly more conservative, those born during the 1940’s and 50’s were trailblazers and trendsetters. Specifically, these will be the women we target vigorously with our marketing and offerings. These women range in age from their mid 40’s to late 50’s. They value uniqueness, convenience, service and quality. As they retire, price does become a factor in decision-making.

At the same time, they were always a generation of the “buy now and pay later” philosophy. 3. Market Size Sunderland accommodates a robust retail market. While car dealerships, grocers and home improvement retailers account for a sizable portion of the retail market, the main local shopping district is downtown. With tree-lined streets and quaint shops and restaurants, the downtown retail district is the social and shopping hub of the community. The current population of Sunderland is just fewer than 40,000. 54 percent are women who have a median age of 48. Their median income is above the national average at $48,600.

Moreover, according to National News, Sunderland is one of the 2008 Top 6 Towns in consumer purchase growth rate in UK. In addition to local consumers, we will also benefit from tourist traffic. Sunderland is located a mere 15 miles from the sandy white beaches of United Kingdom and Clearwater. It’s also within close proximity to many Edinburh and Carlisle area of attractions. Our town boasts a healthy and recession-proof tourism industry. In addition, Sunderland hosts several annual craft and golf events, which bring several thousand of our target consumers into the area each year. 5. The up going Trends The retail fashion industry is a solid business with ever-changing styles and ever-present consumer demand. While many local host outlets and mega stores ruled the past two decades, more and more consumers are looking for change. They’re searching for a more serene and customer-friendly shopping experience. This is true especially for those nearing retirement age. However, this market decrease will not occur for at least twenty years. Even then, clothing will always be in high demand. The fashion industry in Europe has been thriving since the advent of moving pictures. 6. 0 S. O. W.

T Analysis on Batik Business Strengths • Experience and understanding of the fashion industry • Unique shopping experience with exceptional customer service • Great downtown location • Large and growing consumer base Weaknesses • Untested market in Sunderland • While market is large, it is a niche market (Batik) Opportunities • Outstanding shopping experience will lead to repeat business • Growing online Batik Boutique • Establish a Batik Boutique clothing line Threats • Cost and effectiveness of marketing to women “Cheer-up style” • New retail shops that may or may not open in the future 5. 1 PHILOSOPHY

Our company’s core business strategy is to combine exceptional and knowledgeable customer service with quality stylish merchandise. And n turn, we’ll provide an enjoyable shopping experience for our customers. BEK Batik Boutique’s mission is to offer women of the Batik Cheer-up generation a wide selection of fashionable, figure-flattering clothing. Our aim is to establish our company as a pioneer in this youth-obsessed industry and build a boutique brand name that will be synonymous with the fashion industry revolution. 5. 4 MARKETING STRATEGY We both have strong marketing backgrounds and recognize the significance of effective marketing.

We expect our strategy to draw consumers into BEK Batik Boutique from the very beginning. Moreover we will hire a local PR firm to help us develop and implement a strategic marketing plan and guide our publicity efforts in a cost-effective manner. Our marketing message, logo and slogans will revolve around the idea of the Cheer-up Batik generation as revolutionaries and trend setters. Batik’s lover women are in their prime and at their best, meaning these women deserve to be recognized as a force within the fashion industry. Our goal is to keep our marketing budget to no more than 5% of our gross annual sales.

We will partner with local organizations such as the Chamber of Commerce and Downtown Merchants Association as often as possible. We already have connections in all the necessary places. These strategic partnerships will allow us to piggyback on publicity for local events, as long as they are within our targeted demographic. BEK Batik Boutique’s initial marketing efforts will remain local as we establish a presence in our community. These will rely heavily on local print and broadcast media coverage, traditional advertising, signage, a direct mail marketing campaign and networking.

A significant portion of our advertising budget will be allocated to print and broadcast media. Of course, we will build anticipation and excitement about the new boutique prior to its grand opening. Working in conjunction with the Chamber of Commerce, we are already talking about a grand opening soiree. This will include advertisements donated by the bistro across the street and a silent auction of a local artist’s painting collection. The collection is currently on display in the Downtown Art League Gallery. We will also hold a drawing for a $100 shopping spree and fashion consultation.

Entry collection will start at the grand opening and continue throughout the week. Names and contact information will be utilized for follow up marketing initiatives. The Chamber of Commerce and the Downtown Merchants Association will promote the event in local newspapers and radio advertising. Comprehensive advertising and semi-annual direct mail marketing campaigns will follow the grand opening. Low cost publicity activities will also be taken advantage of such as posting sale flyers on community bulletin boards and online. Finally, marketing opportunities will be continually utilized as we expand our business and our consumer numbers grow. . 5 SALES STRATEGY BEK Batik Boutique plans to generate sales via strategic marketing efforts. These concentrated efforts will be targeting new and returning customers as well as single-visit tourist consumers. We will also implement a referral program rewarding customers who refer new customers with discount coupons. Following our grand opening, we will conduct a direct-mail campaign to targeted consumers that we have signed up through our in-store mailing program. The direct mailers will be comprised of 5,000 full-color postcard mailers. Each will include at 10% coupon.

We will offer promotional discounts and seasonal and clearance sales throughout the year. BEK Batik Boutique will accept cash and payment via major credit and debit cards. Cash layaway plans will also be permitted. Returns and exchanges must take place within 30 days of purchase and receipts are mandatory. Our sales staff will include both co-owners and 2-3 part-times sales associates. Combined, Sivabalan and Sanjay have nearly 30 years experience in the fashion and retail industries. Comprehensive training will be provided to each sales associate – to include selling merchandise as well as how to provide fashion advice to customers.

Our sales team will earn an hourly rate, plus a generous percentage of commission from each sale. 5. 6 STRATEGIC ALLIANCES BEK Batik Boutique plans to join the Leads Chamber of Commerce as well as the Leads Downtown Merchants Association. These organizations are dedicated to promoting local businesses within our community and sponsor several events downtown each year. As a member of these organizations, BEK Batik Boutique will gain exposure, make business contacts, and will benefit from Chamber and Association advertising, Web site promotions and events. 5. 7 OPERATIONS

As a retail establishment, BEK Batik Boutique will conduct business seven days a week from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m. Monday through Thursday, from 10 a. m. to 8 p. m. Friday and Saturday, and 12 p. m. to 6 p. m. on Sunday. During the holiday seasons and during special events, store hours will be extended. At this point, the retail store will take require approximately 2/3 of the building’s available space. The remainder will be utilized for stock and administrative purposes. In addition to the two full-time co-owners, three part-time employees will be hired to serve customers.

Our company will secure merchandise from local manufacturers with showrooms in Manchester . We’ll also have access to the Leads Apparel Market, which is the largest wholesale merchandise warehouse in the state. Purchasing from FAM, buyers receive product displays and promotional materials with purchase. Additionally, we will work closely with our regional sales representative. We will also attend relevant pre-season fashion trade shows. To control costs, track inventory and manage stock levels, an inventory control system will be set in place. This will include the standard bar code with its related equipment and software.

Staff will conduct annual inventory audits and hire outside auditors when necessary. All accounting and finances will be maintained using Peachtree software. 5. 8 GOALS The following is a list of business goals and milestones we wish to accomplish our first year of operations. • Complete renovating, stocking, hiring and initial marketing. • Host a successful grand-opening event. • Penetrate and raise awareness in 60 percent our targeted consumer market. • Achieve a profit margin of 50 percent. • Build a solid customer base and mailing list. • Generate repeat and referral sales. Become a profitable business with expansion potential. • Establish a solid reputation as quality retail establishment. Our first major milestones will be securing funds and setting up our business. This is our major focus right now. In five years, we hope to have established our retail business within the community and within our industry. Furthermore, as co-owners, we would like to see the growth of our store with an increase in product lines, further penetration of the national market with online sales and, under the right set of circumstances, the opening of franchise BEK Batik Boutiques in strategic locations. . 9 EXIT STRATEGY The co-owners intend to launch and grow BEK Batik Boutique for many years into the future. In the event that our investors require repayment of their initial investments, plus a large return on their investments, we will seek a partner to buyout the investors’ shares. Another alternative is a management buyout, which will be agreed upon in advance. In the long term, we will position Booming Boutique as a profitable business that will be an appealing acquisition for any number of retail chains. 6. 1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE As a small business, we will have a small staff.

Both co-owners will assume leadership roles within the company and will be responsible for daily operations, overseeing marketing efforts, buying merchandise and managing inventory and all other administrative duties. A small sales staff will assist co-owners with securing sales, assisting customers and general maintenance of stock on the floor. [pic] 6. 2 LEADERSHIP BEK Sdn Bhd and Joanna Jensen are co-owners and will co-manage BEK Batik Boutique. However, daily responsibilities will differ. BEK will manage the day-to-day operations including supervising staff, maintaining inventory and bookkeeping.

Joanna Jensen will oversee the merchandise buying for the store as well as maintain a keen awareness of trends within the industry. She will also work with our public relations firm to ensure superior marketing plans are in place and implemented. Jensen worked in the fashion industry in various capacities working with designers, wholesalers and retailers for 20 years. She earned a BA in fashion merchandising from Colliers Fashion Institute in Miami, Florida. 6. 3 STAFF MEMBERS Booming Boutique will employ a sales staff of 3 part-time employees. These positions are yet to be filled.

However, we feel the labor pool is such that finding qualified employees will not be an issue. Our sales associates will be paid an hourly wage, plus commission. Bonuses will be provided with each year of service following an annual review to encourage employee retention. 7. 0 FINANCIAL PLAN 7. 1 REQUIREMENTS Booming Boutique will need $282,000 to get our business off the ground. We are currently seeking funding from outside investors and business loans. 3. 0 MARKET ANALYSIS The total sales reported in the BEK Sdn Bhd retail industry in 2008 (including men and women ware exceeded $4 million.

There are roughly 0. 5 million merchandized, half of which are women. In Malaysia, the current population is just fewer than 40,000. 54 percent of the total population is women who have a median age of 48. The median income is $48,600. We will initially seek customers locally, but will increase our reach as we build our brand and secure our image. 1. 6 FINANCIAL PLAN Our company will earn revenue from our customers’ purchases of our products. BEK batik Boutique’s first-year income statement illustrates a profit margin of at least fifty-two percent, with a net income of $44,075 per month – after taxes.

Finally, we have determined our break-even point will equal no less than $15,500 in total monthly sales. We project our annual profits to reach $380,000 by year three. Our company will generate revenue from the retail sale of clothing and other merchandise. First year sales are projected at $285,000, and we expect sales to surpass $525,000 by the end of year three. We will achieve month-to-month profitability within the first year. 1. 7 SOURCES & USE OF FUNDS EXPANSION BEK Batik Boutique requires $282,000 to launch successfully. We’ve already raised $62,000 through personal investments and a small community grant.

We are currently seeking additional funding from outside investors and business loans. Start-up funds will be used for renovations, inventory and operating expenses such as rent, utilities and payroll. Further, our initial investment will also be used to purchase retail equipment and inventory software – all of which will produce future benefits for the company. . 5. 3 INTERNET STRATEGY As the Internet has become a staple of United Kingdom life and retail merchandising, BEK Batik Boutique will have a viable Web site. We have secured the domain name BEKBoutique. com. k and will begin site development as funds become available. Further, we plan to hire an established Web designer that will accept modest pay in exchange for future profit-sharing. Foremost, we intend to showcase our brand, our clothing and provide customers with the ability to purchase items online. As the site progresses, we will include features such as fashion advice, designer interviews, newsletters, and Internet-only specials. Eventually, we hope to establish and nurture an online social community where women can gather and discuss topics of the day, network and share clothing secrets.

At this time we have raised $50,000 in equity capital and an additional $12,000 for a specific-use grant. Both co-owners, Robin Mathews and Joanna Jensen, have invested $25,000 each into Booming Boutique. We are seeking investors for an additional $170,000 in equity investment and $50,000 in loans. 7. 2 USE OF FUNDS Funds will be used to pay for renovations, including the outside facade (to be paid for via PDRC grant), construction of fitting rooms, sales counter, painting, carpeting, lighting, decor and display fixtures.

We will also purchase inventory, a cash register, computer equipment and an inventory management system. The remainder of the start-up funds will be utilized to cover operating expenses, such as rent, utilities, marketing costs and wages. 7. 3 INCOME STATEMENT PROJECTIONS Based on our marketing plans, location, store size and product offerings, we expect to collect annual sales of $285,000 in year one, $375,000 in year two and $525,000 in year three. Our average cost of goods sold will be 40%, which leaves us with a gross margin of 60%.

Our minimum monthly fixed costs are $15,500 per month, so we will need to generate sales of $25,833 per month to break even. We will become profitable on a monthly basis before the end of our first year. In our third year, we will earn net income of $105,000. The accompanying income statement demonstrates our company’s profitability. 7. 4 CASH FLOW PROJECTIONS Our business will collect immediate payment from customers, so our cash flow statement will be substantially similar to our income statement. Our cash flow statement clearly demonstrates our ability to cover all bills. . 5 BALANCE SHEET BEK Batik Boutique will launch with $220,000 in equity capital and $50,000 in loans. Credit amounts and supplier terms for inventory will appear in our balance sheet as short-term liabilities. Jewelry consignments from vendors will not be documented in our balance sheet and will be expensed as these items are sold. Details are shown in our enclosed balance sheet. 7. 6 ASSUMPTIONS Our projections are based on the assumption that the economy, consumer spending habits and population growth in Leads will continue for the foreseeable future.

We must also assume that our present and future suppliers will continue to sell inventory to us at prices that allow us to maintain our present margins. It is also important that we are able to hire reliable employees at reasonable wages ———————– BEK Sdn Bhd, Malaysia 85 % shares UK Local Panther Ms. Joanna . J 25% shares BEK Batik Boutique Ltd, UK Vision BEK Batik Boutique Company Secretary and Legal. Mr. Sivabalan Mission Retailer Supervisor Ms. Monica Operation Manager Mr. MdYusni Objectives Design & Develop. Manager Mr. Sanjay Marketing Strategy Manager Mr. Goby BEK Sdn Bhd And Jensen

Engagement Letter

Apollo Engagement Letter University of Phoenix Anderson, Old, and Watershed, CPA’s, LLC Shoetown, ME 00001 October 26, 2007 Mr. Larry Lancaster President and Chairman Apollo Shoes, Inc. Dear Mr. Lancaster: This letter is to confirm our understanding of the terms and objectives of our engagement and the nature and limitations of the services we will provide. We will audit the consolidated balance sheet of Apollo shoes as of December 31, 2008, and the related consolidated statements of operations, retained earnings (deficit), and cash flows for the year ended.

The purpose of the audit is to express an opinion about whether your consolidated financial statements are fairly presented, in all material respects, in conformity with accounting principals generally accepted accounting principals. This audit procedure will include tests of documentary evidence supporting the transactions recorded in the accounts, test of physical existence of inventories, and direct confirmation of receivables and payables and certain other assets and liabilities.

Because an audit is designed to provide reasonable, but not absolute, assurance and because we will not perform a detailed examination for all transactions, there is a risk that material errors, fraud or illegal acts, may exist and not be detected by us. Our audit will include obtaining an understanding of your internal controls sufficient to plan the audit and to determine the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures to be performed. We have no responsibility to identify and communicate significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in your internal controls as part of this engagement.

However, during the audit, if we become aware of such reportable conditions, we will communicate them to you. You are responsible for maintaining an adequate and efficient accounting system that will help assure the preparation for proper financial statements. You are responsible for making all financial records information available to us and for the accuracy and completeness of that information. As part of our engagement, we may propose standard, adjusting, or correcting journal entries to your financial statements.

You are responsible for reviewing the entries and understating the nature of any proposed entries and the impact they have on the financial statement. In order for us to complete this engagement, you are responsible to provide the information necessary in a timely basis so we conclude the audit in time. As part of our engagement for the year ending December 31, 2008, we will review the form 10-K and prepare the federal and state franchise tax return for Apollo Shoes, Inc. Our fees for the engagement are not contingent on the results of our services. The fees will be based on our standard hourly rates.

We estimate that our fee for these services will be approximately 750,000. However, in the event that we encounter unusual circumstances that would require us to expand the scope of the engagement, and if we anticipate our fees exceeding the amount stated, we will adjust the estimate, and obtain your prior approval before continuing with the engagement. If, you agreed to the terms and conditions of this engagement, please sign this letter in the space provided and return the original signed letter to us. Keep a copy for your records. We appreciate the opportunity to serve you. Yours truly: Arnold Anderson Partner Accepted: By: Date:

Timeframes for the audit. Subject to any unexpected or unplanned delays (on your part or ours), we will endeavor to meet the following timelines: Audit Commencement: December 24, 2007 Issue of final draft audit report for consideration: March 8, 2008 Information required commencing the audit. Last year’s profit and loss statement Engagement Checklist Yes No Is there a copy of last’s year audit files available to be examined? Has internal control been adequately understood? Has permanent files been updated? References Auditing and Assurance Services (11th ed). Arens, Elder, Beasley. Prentice Hall (2006)

Physical Fitness Test

Research Strategy and Design The researchers will be using the descriptive strategy to study the facts derived from the research. The researchers will be using the descriptive strategy in order to ascertain prevailing conditions and to give qualitative and quantitative description. This strategy is intended to answer questions about the current state of the problem the researchers are studying and the individuals involve. The researchers will also be describing each factor that contributes to physical deficiency of cadets.

The researcher’s concern is not the relationship between these factors and the cadets but of the description and elaboration of these factors. On the other hand, the researchers will be using the survey research design to give a qualitative and quantitative description of the problem. The survey research design will be a fact finding study with accurate and adequate interpretation, (Calderon and Gonzales, 2007). This would help the researchers to gather data needed in the study in order to have a precise data for the researcher’s analysis.

This will also provide a clear and accurate picture of the individual being studied. Population and Locale of the Study The total population of the study will be cadets of the Cadet Corps Armed Forces of the Philippines (CCAFP) composed of firstclass, secondclass, thirdclass and fourthclass cadets. The place of the study will be at the Cadet Corps Armed Forces of the Philippines, Philippine Military Academy, Fort del Pilar, Baguio City. The researchers will use the stratified random sampling in order to determine the number of respondents since the population totaled to 875 cadets.

This method will yield the manageable sample that will be studied and be taken respondents. The researchers will use this sampling technique because the participants are randomly selected from the different classes in the CCAFP. The researchers will be using the Slovin’s Formula as statistical tool in getting the total sample of the respondents. Slovin’s Formula: n= ( N / (1 + Ne? ) ) in which: n= the size of the sample N= the size of the population e= the margin of error Computation: n= ( N / (1 + Ne? ) ) ( 875 / 1 + (875 ? 0. 10? ) ) = 89. 74 or 90 cadets There would be a total of 90 cadets that are needed to accomplish the study. The researchers will get 23 respondents for the firstclass and seconclass cadets and 22 respondents for the thirdclass and fourthclass cadets. Statistical Treatment of Data Statistical treatment gives meaning and interpretation to data (Calderon and Gonzales, 2007). Without it, the data gathered cannot be associated to give answers to the problems posed in the research study.

In order to arrive at precise analysis and interpretation of the results, the proponents will be utilizing different tools in treating the data. In the study, the researchers will be making use of the weighted mean to determine the extent of the factors that contribute to the deficiency of the cadets in Physical Fitness Test. In the second part of the questionnaire and 1st and 2nd specific statement of the problem, the weighted mean will be calculated using the following formula: ?fx X = ______ ?f

Where: X = weighted arithmetic mean ?fx = sum of all products of f and x; where f is the frequency and x is the weight of each option ? f = sum of all subjects The obtained answer will be rounded off to the nearest whole number and whatever value obtained corresponds to the characteristic given by the scale. The profile of the respondents will be treated using percentage distribution. The researchers will then be able to assess the respondents or the population in general. In order to find a ignificant difference in the responses from the different age, class, Body Mass Index (BMI) and sex, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is employed. This statistical tool will test the hypothesis that there is a significant difference in the: 1. Responses of the cadets belonging to an age bracket. 2. Responses of the cadets belonging to different class. 3. Responses of the cadets having different Body Mass Index (BMI). 4. Responses of the cadets having different sex. The formula for the Analysis of Variance will be given by: F = MS MSe Where : MS = Mean square MSe = Mean square error

Legalizing Medical Marijuana

Legalizing Medical Marijuana The debate over whether to legalize marijuana has been one of the most controversial issues dividing courts, the federal government, state governments, and voters. In 1996, Arizona and California voters overwhelmingly approved the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Propositions 200 and 215 represented a dramatic shift from a previously united federal and state front against illegal drugs to one where state governments and voters are now at odds with the federal government over the medical use of controlled substances.

Rather than focusing on how to improve and maintain the long-standing war on drugs, the policy issue has now become; who controls America’s drug laws, courts, the federal government, state governments, or the voters? In addition, the legalization of marijuana poses other questions; does legalizing marijuana undermine the seemingly endless federal war on drugs by moving towards greater tolerance of marijuana and other drugs? Is more research necessary to determine the benefits or hazardous effects of marijuana? Would legalizing marijuana open the floodgates to legalizing other controlled substances such as heroin or LSD?

This paper analyzes and examines. The history of marijuana legalization and prohibition. The arguments for and against legalizing marijuana. This paper concludes by recommending that before marijuana is legalized for medical use there needs to be more testing to improve our knowledge and understanding of marijuana. The first recorded use of marijuana as medicine was in a Chinese pharmacopoeia in 2727 B. C. The cornerstone of drug prohibition in the United States was the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 which restricted the use of opiates such as cocaine, heroin, and morphine to medical purposes (Trebach and Inciardi, p. 3). In the United States, marijuana was legal until the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 established the federal prohibition of the drug. (Grinspoon; Trebach and Inciardi). Had marijuana not been removed from the list of drugs in the United States Pharmacopoeia in 1937, it would have been grand fathered into the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act as a prescription drug, just as cocaine and morphine were. (Grinspoon). As a result of the tremendous increase in the number of recreational drug users and a more liberalized political climate, marijuana medicinal uses were rediscovered in the 1970s.

In the later 1970s and 1980s, marijuana was medically used by hundreds of patients (mainly in the form of synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol) in research projects conducted by several states for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy. (Grinspoon). Likewise, in 1976, the federal government approved the use of marijuana as a medicine by instituting the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program (CIND), under which physicians could obtain an Investigational New Drug application (IND) for a patient to receive marijuana. (Grinspoon).

However, this program was so filled with and bureaucratically overburdened that in the course of history only about three dozen individuals ever received marijuana. One argument in favor of legalization is that marijuana provides several medical benefits for individuals suffering from asthma, cancer, glaucoma, migraine headaches, multiple sclerosis, and other symptoms and syndromes. (Grinspoon, p. 1). First, marijuana is remarkably non-toxic as evidenced by the fact that there has never been a reported death caused by marijuana overdose. Grinspoon, p. 1). In addition, marijuana’s long-term and short-term effects (i. e. , increased appetite, increased memory loss/slowed memory function, etc. ) are relatively inconsequential compared to medicines for which marijuana may be substituted. (Grinspoon, p. 1). Next, once patients no longer have to pay the prohibition tariff, marijuana will be less expensive than the medications it replaces. (Grinspoon, p. 1).

Finally, marijuana is remarkably versatile; case histories and clinical evidence suggests it is useful in the treatment of over two dozen symptoms and syndromes, and others will undoubtedly be discovered in the future. (Grinspoon, p. 1). Another argument in favor of legalization is that there are many activities that are considered integral parts of daily life that are more lethal than marijuana. In order to support this contention, proponents note that in the United States, tobacco alone kills over 430,000, alcohol 110,000, prescription drugs 32,000, and aspirin and Tylenol 7,600 yearly. http://my. marijuana. com, p. 1). By contrast, all illegal drugs combined, including, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), heroin, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), marijuana, mescaline, PCP (phencyclidine), and psilocybin (magic) mushrooms killed approximately 11,000 in 1999. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 1). In addition, proponents contend that prohibition has not been shown to have a measurable impact on the demand for drugs in general. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2).

Countries such as Italy, Portugal, and Spain, have decriminalized the use of all drugs, including cocaine and heroin, and offer government subsidized programs to assist those addicted to hard drugs such as heroin, providing them with doctor supervised locations to ingest their drugs. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). Likewise, the Netherlands has legalized soft drugs including marijuana and magic mushrooms. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). The result of these programs has been lower drug addiction, death, and use rates. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2).

Proponents of legalization contend that by preventing valid manufacturers from making these products, prohibition increases the dangers associated with drug use by preventing regulation, and forcing drug users to buy products which have no guarantee of dosage or purity. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). In addition, proponents contend that prohibition increases street violence by forcing the sale of drugs to the black market, which encourages the formation of organized crime in order to distribute and manufacture these substances under the control of a group of individuals. http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). Laws are structured in order to punish adults more heavily than minors, and due to this, minors are enlisted by these organized crime units, provided with guns or other weapons, and used to sell or transport these drugs, with the knowledge that if they are caught, they will not be as heavily punished. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). This increase in violence and the focus on criminalizing drug use has resulted in the criminal justice system being overloaded. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2).

Non-violent drug offenders make up 58% of the federal prison population according to the ACLU. In addition, mandatory minimum sentencing laws and laws such as California’s Three Strikes law are unfairly distributed, jailing some for life, simply for selling a chemical which the buyer freely chooses to ingest, making it a harsher crime to participate in a consensual act than to commit second degree murder. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 3). Proponents of legalization also contend that the war on drugs presents an immense monetary drain on the United States economy. http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4). For example, in 2000, the Clinton administration spent more than $17. 9 billion on the war on drugs. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4). By comparison, the president is requested $4. 5 billion in discretionary appropriations for the Department of Education in the fiscal year 2002. (Dept. Of Ed. ). In short, the United States is spending 40% as much on fighting the drug war as it is on educating for the next generation. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4).

Finally, proponents of legalization contend that prohibition is causing the government to miss out on an opportunity to raise an incredible amount of tax revenue. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4). The international illicit drug business generates as much as $400 billion in trade annually according to the United Nations International Drug Control Program, which amounts to 8% of all international trade and is comparable to the annual turnover in textiles. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. ). Legalizing marijuana and taxing its sale would allow the government to use this money to improve and pay for drug treatment programs, health care, homeless shelters, and schools. Legalization would not only eliminate the $18 billion per year spent fighting the drug war, but would in turn raise at least $40 billion per year in tax revenue, if one assumes a mild 10% tax on the drug trade, a number nearly equivalent to the entire United States education budget. (http://my. marijuana. om, p. 4). While proponents of legalization contend that marijuana provides several medical benefits, there is no concrete, convincing scientific evidence that marijuana offers benefits that patients cannot obtain from approved prescription drugs such as Marinol. However, patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy or suffering from multiple sclerosis report fewer side-effects with marijuana than with regular drugs. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 4).

Although the American Medical Association and other official medical groups oppose medical marijuana, a 1991 survey found 44% of oncologists had suggested use of marijuana to treat nausea associated with chemotherapy. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 4). Thus, before marijuana may be approved as a prescription drug, clinical trials to gauge its therapeutic effect upon pain must be conducted. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 4).

Another argument opposing legalization is that marijuana is a (gateway) drug and that legalizing it will only encourage more individuals to try it. However, like the argument that providing high school students with condoms and sex education will inspire teenagers to become sexually active, this argument is logically flawed. If an individual wishes to try marijuana or to have premarital sex, he or she will not be deterred from doing so simply because it is illegal. Finally, opponents of legalization contend that medical marijuana laws are overbroad, i. . , California’s Proposition 215 is written in such a way that almost any ailment or pain could be construed as justification for the use of marijuana and also allows for the cultivation of marijuana, not just possession. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 3). In addition, Arizona’s Proposition 200 goes beyond marijuana, which is often viewed as a soft drug by both opponents and proponents of legalization, and empowers doctors to prescribe narcotics such as heroin and LSD if they see fit. (http://www. cnn. om/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 3). Although there are many arguments in favor of legalizing marijuana, more clinical and laboratory research is necessary to improve our knowledge and understanding of marijuana. First, we need to know how many patients and which patients with each symptom or syndrome are likely to find marijuana more effective than existing drugs. Next, more information is required about marijuana’s effect on the immune system in immunologically impaired patients, and its interaction with other medications.

Finally, if and when marijuana is legalized, there should be a uniform distribution and enforcement system in place between federal and state governments to regulate who may obtain marijuana, its accepted uses, and quality control mechanisms. References Grinspoon, Lester. Medical Marihuana in a Time of Prohibition. International Journal of Drug Policy, April, 1999. Trebach, Arnold S. and Inciardi, James A. Legalize It? Debating American Drug Policy. The American University Press, Washington, DC. 1993. http://my. marijuana. com http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html