Comparsion Of Psychological Perspectives Of Human Development

This essay will compare and contrast two viing psychological theories of human behavior, concentrating on at least one phase in human life. Although there are assorted phases of human development, for the intent of this essay, we shall analyze the grownup phase of behavior. There are a figure of comparings and contrasts between the psychodynamic attack and the humanistic attack in psychological science, to assist understand human behavior. To supply a important contrast, this assignment analyses the two establishing male parents of these attacks, Sigmund Freud for the psychodynamic attack and Carl Rogers for the humanistic attack. The establishing male parents give a huge diverseness of theory and therapy used when looking at behavioral forms in worlds.

The psychodynamic theory was originally pioneered from Freud ‘s findings in the late 1800 ‘s. This theory looks at analysis of slips, free association and dream reading, which can supply penetrations into the unconscious head which in bend, can impact human behavior. Freud spilt the personality into three ; viz. , the Idaho, self-importance and super-ego. Freud suggests the Idaho is present from birth, for illustration ; the endurance inherent aptitude of sucking and shouting. The self-importance so evolves from the Idaho, through contact with the universe, the environment and becomes cognizant of ego through world. From the age of three onwards Freud suggests we develop the super-ego, this is learnt through parents and household influence. The super-ego kerb the demands from the Idaho, chiefly concerned with the witting, what ‘s ‘right and incorrect ‘ . Freud saw consciousness as a whole comprising of three degrees, the witting, the preconscious and the unconscious ( Freud, 1936 ) .

“ The self-importance is that portion of the Idaho which has been modified by the direct influence of the external universe. The self-importance represents what may be called ground and common sense, in contrast to the Idaho, which contains the passionsaˆ¦aˆ¦in its relation to the Idaho ; it is like a adult male on horseback, who has to keep in look into the superior strength of the Equus caballus ( Freud, 1961 [ 1923 ] pg 25 ) .

The psychodynamic theory besides examines anxiousness and defense mechanism mechanisms, which suggests we possess in order to maintain a healthy balance. The intent of the defense mechanism mechanisms is to screen the self-importance from some of the rough facets of world. All defense mechanism mechanisms portion two features, foremost the protection of the self-importance and secondly, they operate unconsciously so we are non cognizant a deformation of world has taken topographic point ( Gross, 2005 ) .

Another facet of the psychodynamic attack is Freud ‘s theory of childish gender and the psychosexual phases, which could be associated to specific grownup personality traits and behavior. The cardinal facet of these phases are based on the premise the kid derives pleasance from certain parts of their organic structure, which may associate to sexual desires. The sequences of Freud ‘s phases are determined by ripening and how the kid is treated by others, particularly their primary health professionals. The first phase is the unwritten phase ( 0-1 ) , the 2nd phase is the anal phase ( 1-3 ) , and the 3rd phase is the phallic phase ( 3-5/6 ) . The genitalias now become the new beginning of pleasance and the kid besides becomes cognizant of their sex differences, which marks the beginning of the Oedipus composite. This complex suggests the kid ‘s emotions conflict in relation to their same and opposite-sex parents ; both male childs and misss experience the Oedipus composite ( Gardner, 1982 ) .

“ the babe ‘s stubborn continuity in sucking gives grounds at an early phase of a demand for satisfaction which, though it originates from and is instigated by the pickings of nutriment, however strives to obtain pleasance independently of nutriment and for that ground may be termed sexual ” ( Freud, 2003 [ 1949 ] pg 24 ) .

The 4th phase of the psychosexual phases is the latency period ( 5-6 to puberty ) , this phase is where the sexual pre-occupations of early childhood are repressed into the unconscious and the balance between the Idaho, self-importance and super-ego is greater than any other clip in the kid ‘s life. The 5th phase is the venereal phase ( puberty-maturity ) , Freud suggests this is where the old phase is the ‘calm before the storm ‘ . It marks the beginning of adolescence and harmoniousness within the kid ‘s personality is now disrupted by the powerful inherent aptitudes of the new demands of the Idaho, for illustration ; sexual desires. Although, Freud basically analysed childhood, he utilised his theory to explicate perturbations in footings of grownup behavior ( Gardner, 1982 ) .

Rogers is considered to be the most influential humanistic psychologist and normally known as the establishing male parent of the humanistic attack. The humanistic theory was developed in the 1950s and basically focal points on the dimension of experience, personal duty, free will and the importance of the ‘here and now ‘ instead than the past. Furthermore, its cardinal rules are personal growing and fulfillment ( Rogers, 1951 ) .

“ He has learned that it is safe to go forth the less unsafe consideration of his symptoms of others, of the environment and of the past and concentrate upon the find of “ me, here and now ” ( Rogers, 1951 pg 136 ) .

The foundations of Rogers ‘s humanistic theory of the actualizing inclination were based on his agricultural background, with respects to the conditions of growing and he suggested this could be applied to all life beings ;

“ I remember that in my boyhood the murphy bin in which we stored our winter supply of murphies was in the cellar, several pess below a little cellar window. The conditions were unfavorable, but the murphies would get down sprout pale, while sprouts so unlike the healthy green shoots they sent up when planted in the dirt in the spring. But these sad, spindly sprouts would turn two or three pess in length as they reached toward the distant visible radiation of the window. They were, in their bizarre futile growing a kind of despairing look of the directional inclination I have been depicting ” ( Rogers, 1977 pg8 ) .

Humanitarianism emphasises on the positive facets of human experience and positions persons as holding an unconditioned thrust to carry through their possible. Part of accomplishing this involves researching and accepting the ego, the nature of behavior and accepting duties which go along with this. The humanistic theory splits the ego into three parts, viz. the organismal ego, the ideal ego and the ego construct. This construct suggests that the individual is unfastened to see, self-generated and autonomous instead than merely reacting to others. Therefore, demoing personal genuineness, which suggests they are being truly themselves ( Rogers, 1967 ) .

Arguably one of the cardinal constructs of the humanistic attack is people can be seen as endeavoring for self-actualisation. However, people, including those who suffer from mental upsets, happen this difficult to accomplish. Rogers developed his client-centred therapy, besides known as person-centred therapy. This sort of therapy provides a positive and encouraging environment designed to advance personal growing and to ease self-actualisation ( Eysenck, 1998 ) .

“ The being actualises itself in the way of greater distinction of variety meats and of map. It moves in the way of limited enlargement through growing, enlargement through widening itself by agencies of its tools, and enlargement through reproduction ” ( Rogers, 1951 pg 488 ) .

Person-centred therapy aims to get the better of obstructions which have blocked or prevented persons from accomplishing their potency. It appears indispensable for the healer to be echt, whole, or congruent in the relationship. This suggests it is of import for the healer to be what he is in the contract with the client, whereas Freud ‘s therapy technique provides readings or gives advice. The function of the healer is to listen and to reflect back to the client in order to clear up what the client has said. The healer creates an environment which will ease the procedure of self-discovery, instead than implementing any peculiar position or mentality. Therefore, this indicates a contrast in therapy techniques between the psychodynamic attack and humanistic attack, which places them at one terminal of the spectrum to the other ( Rogers, 1951 ) .

“ It has been my experience that though clients can, to some grade, independently discover some of their denied or repressed feelings, they can non on their ain achieve full emotional credence of these feelings. It is merely in a lovingness relationship that these ‘awful ‘ feelings are first genuinely accepted by the healer and can so be accepted by the client ” ( Rogers, 1951 pg 202 ) .

Rogers identified three nucleus ingredients, important to the therapy for this procedure to work successfully. First, the healer must hold genuineness or congruity, which indicates the healer, should let true feelings and ideas to emerge in the therapy session, instead than moving a function towards the client. This demonstrates a contrast between depth psychology, where the healer allows little of his ain personality into the curative relationship. The transference technique was originally created by Freud, who implemented the theory of transference in the curative relationship. Therefore, this demonstrates a important relationship between the two theoreticians. Second, the healer should hold empathy, to understand the clients experience and feel with the client. Finally, the healer should actively accept and value the client, which Rogers called unconditioned positive respect ( Crooks & A ; Stein, 1988 ) .

Rogers ‘s humanistic attack suggests our behavior is affected by the experiences we have throughout our life and did non concentrate entirely on childhood. However, Freud ‘s psychodynamic attack suggests that childhood behavior is dependent on innate forces, and adult behavior is dependent on early childhood experience. Although the psychodynamic attack does explicate our natural thrusts, it does look to be limited to childhood and allows small or no room for free will. Therefore, it could be argued this demonstrates a huge contrast in the attacks, as there is a important difference in the foundations of behavior and differences in free will, as Rogers regarded free will as a cardinal construct to the humanistic attack ( Davidson & A ; Neale, 1998 ) .

Although Sigmund Freud was born about a half a century before Carl Rogers, their theories are non dissimilar, as they both base their theories on the premise of unconditioned thrusts. However, harmonizing to Kirschenbaum,

“ Both Freud and Rogers saw the psychological science of the individual map in this similar manner. The point of difference arose in the primacy Freud gave and the equality which Rogers gave to the id maps. For Freud the Idaho was basic and awful, for Rogers it existed at the same time and every bit with the superego and was non to be feared but accepted. Aside from differences in methods, one of the most evident contrasts in the thought of Rogers and Freud is in their basic rating of human nature ” ( Kirschenbaum, 2007 pg 243 ) .

It could be argued the humanistic attack signifies a counterweight to the psychodynamic attack, as it has helped to convey the ‘person ‘ dorsum into psychological science. It basically, recognises people help find their ain behavior and are non slaves to their yesteryear. Rogers suggests people are cognizant of their behavior which has similarities to depth psychology, it emphasises the desire of being cognizant of the motivations behind the behavior. However, like Freud ‘s theory several constructs are hard to detect by experimentation, such as self-actualisation and it can non account for the foundations of the behavior. It describes but does non explicate personality and behavior, hence, subjecting it to erroneous belief ( Gross, 2005 ) .

In decision it is clear from the above there are striking differences between Freud and Roger ‘s theories.A Roger’sA position is clearly unstable, as it assists the individualA to recognize and understand grounds for their behaviors based on life experience in general.A It besides, in contrast to Freud ‘s theory, does non enforce any peculiar belief.A Freud’sA theory is slightly stiff, as it acts as an reading and suggests that grownup behavior is controlled by childhood experience. Despite the theories being complex when analyzing adult behavior, both Freud and Rogers were considered to be two of the most outstanding minds of the twentieth century and their work continues to act upon psychologists to this twenty-four hours. However, Rogers humanistic attack is more progressive and hence, doing this attack the most evolving out of the two psychological theories used today.


CROOKS, R. L & A ; STEIN, J ( 1988 ) Psychology Science, Behaviour and Life. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

DAVIDSON, G.C & A ; NEALE, J.M ( 1998 ) Abnormal Psychology, Seventh Ed. New York: Wiley & A ; Sons, Inc.

EYSENCK, M ( 1998 ) Psychology an Integrated Approach. Harlow: Pearson Education LTD.

FREUD, S ( 1936 ) The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. London: Chatto & A ; Windus.

FREUD, S ( 1961 [ 1923 ] ) The Ego and the Id, Standard Ed, Vol.19. London: Hogarth Press.

FREUD, S ( 2003 [ 1949 ] ) An Outline of Psychoanalysis. London: Penguin.

GARDNER, H ( 1982 ) Developmental Psychology, Second erectile dysfunction. Canada: Little, Brown & A ; Company Ltd.

GROSS, R ( 2005 ) Psychology The Science and Mind of Behaviour, ( Fifth Edition ) . London: Hodder Arnold.

KIRSCHENBAUM, H ( 2007 ) The Life and Works of Carl Rogers. Hertfordshire: PCCS Books.

Rogerss, C.R ( 1951 ) Client-Cantered Therapy. London: Constable & A ; Company Ltd.

Rogerss, C, R ( 1967 ) A Therapist ‘s View of Psychotherapy. London: Constable & A ; Company Ltd.

Rogerss, C. R ( 1977 ) Carl Rogers on Personal Power. New York: Delacorte.