Dumping Site Location And Condition Information Technology Essay

3.1 Introduction

There are several factors that influence negatively the SWM by the Harar municipality. Because of these negative factors the SWM system in the metropolis is considered weak and is non to the expected degree of the populace in general. Focus group treatments, personal interviews with cardinal sources and the responses collected from the selected samples for this survey revealed the facts that are responsible for the prevailing position of the SWM in Harar metropolis. This undertaking follows aggregative analysis of the restraints identified in the selected countries of Harar metropolis with respect to MSWM. Therefore, significance degree of each independent variable upon the dependant variable ( MSWM ) was non tested for this survey. Further, although extended related literatures are quoted above, selected variables that had really direct and strong impact on the MSWM in the metropolis were considered for this undertaking that are discussed below.

The current degree of MSWM at Harar metropolis is below the outlook of the populace. The following table depicts issues related to the current SWM by the Harar Municipality. Furthermore, the MSWM disposes a meager sum of refuse in appropriate ways. Therefore, the current position of MSWM patterns carried out by Harar municipality does non populate to the outlook of the populace. Although, the informations shown in the tabular array below were collected through informal agencies like personal and friendly treatments with the workers of assorted sub divisions of the municipality that are responsible for SWM in the metropolis, it can non be merely ignored such low degree public presentation does non be as one can see the bing hapless status of MSWM in the images used in this undertaking.

Table 1 Current Status of MSWM in Harar City

Different Types of

stuffs Collected

Average Kilograms of SW Collected Per House Hold Per Week

Average Kilograms of SW

Piled in the Dump Site out of the Collected Amount

Deliberate per centum of Appropriate Disposal of the Collected Solid Wastes

Sum of Garbage dumped in Sites

In Percentage

Dumping Site Location and Condition

Garbage Picker

Related Matters

Household Rubbish thrown at Street Corner

1.5

1.35

& lt ; 2

98.00 & gt ;

Less than One Kilometer from City Outskirts and non fenced

They forage in the Sites although they are non lawfully allowed

Road Dust and Refuse thrown

1.8

1.65

& lt ; 1.5

98.5 & gt ;

Less than One Kilometer from City Outskirts

They forage in the Sites although they are non lawfully allowed

Garbage Collected from Containers

2.01

1.85

& lt ; 1.5

98.5 & gt ;

Less than One Kilometer from City Outskirts

They forage in the Sites although they are non lawfully allowed

Other Types of Solid Wastes

Sodium

Sodium

Sodium

Sodium

Whatever Collected is Dumped in the Sites

They forage in the Sites although they are non lawfully allowed

Beginning: Informal Information from Municipal Workers 2009-10

3.2 Land Use

The following tabular array clearly shows the land usage by different factors at Harar metropolis is by far great. This clearly indicates the fact that a big sum of refuse is accumulated at the terminal of each twenty-four hours and it has become a Himalayan undertaking to the municipality of Harar to roll up, manage and dispose it. Due to population growing an effectual SWM today may go uneffective a few old ages after as the quantum of refuse accumulated on day-to-day footing is excessively immense to be handled. This is one of the main grounds that the MSWM in Harar metropolis is soon falls short of the outlook of the populace.

Table 2 Land Use in Harar City

Land Cover

Surface ( hour angle )

Deliberate per centum of Entire Land Area

Pure Residence

700

35.9

Administration

20

1.0

Commerce and Trade

35

1.8

Service

20

1.0

Fabrication and storage

25

1.3

Transportation system

270

13.9

Diversion

40

2.1

Agribusiness

350

17.8

Forest / Trees

220

11.3

Particular map

270

13.9

Entire

1950

100 %

Beginning: Land use map of the metropolis by MCE, 2007

3.3 Population Growth

The following tabular array shows the rate of population growing at Harar metropolis over the old ages. Although the tabular array shows lessening in per centum in the scope of every five old ages, the overall population growing will still be higher as each per centum represents the increased population of the predating five old ages. Hence, more force per unit area and duties will be added to Harar MSWM system to keep a cleaner metropolis. As a affair of fact, Harar metropolis has more population in 2010 than it had in 2005 although the expected per centum of population growing is less relatively. Therefore, increasing land usage on one manus and population on the other, the SWM in Harar metropolis is non upto the grade. In any state population addition influences MSWM greatly as it demands immense work force, big sum of money and efficient disposal system to safeguard the involvements of the populace.

Table 3 Average Population Growth Rate

Scope of

Old ages

Expected Population

Growth Rate

%

1995-2000

4.236

2000-2005

3.847

2005-2010

3.628

2010-2015

3.347

2015-2020

3.100

2020-2025

2.929

2025-2030

2.809

Beginning: Harar Water Supply Project Design Review Report, 2006

3.4 Organizational Arrangement and Logistics of Harar Municipality

The followers is the construction of Harar Municipality of which one sector viz. Department of Urban Sanitation, Beautification and Regulatory Enforcement Division is responsible for SWM in the metropolis. Although the organisational construction is impressive as seen in the undermentioned chart, the division in charge of SWM in the metropolis was non to the outlook of the common man for several grounds. Let us get down with the organisational chart foremost. The undermentioned figure explains it.

Head office of the municipality

Department of urban sanitation, beautification and regulative enforcement

Kebele Administration degree sanitation and beautification squad

Social service section

Urban sanitation squad

Urban beautification and regulative squad

Supervisor

Plantation squad

Social personal businesss squad

Critical statistics squad

Figure 2 Organizational Arrangement of Harar Municipality

Beginning: Harar Municipal Office-2010

The following tabular array shows the available work force at the disposal of Harar Municipality

Table 4 Staffing Structure of Sanitation Team

Consecutive

Number

Type of Job

Number of Staff

1

Head of Sanitation, Beautification and Regulatory Enforcement Department

1

2

Supervisors

9

3

Secretary

2

4

Driver and Driver Assistants

5

5

Janitor

1

6

Street Sweepers

135

Entire

153

Beginning: Harar Municipal Office-2010 Statisticss

Although the entire Numberss of staff put together may look sensible, it does non do the demand of the SWM in Harar metropolis sing the day-to-day entire refuse accumulated by different histrions as discussed elsewhere in this chapter. It is obvious from the tabular array above that bulk of the workers are unskilled. Their educational degree ranges between illiteracy and basic literacy. Questions at the Municipal office revealed the fact that ill leave and other eligible leave utilized by street sweepers presently stood at 9. At times it was every bit high as 15. Any lessening in day-to-day demand of manpower had its negative influence on SWM such as refuse accumulated in the survey country was partly collected or non at all collected. The following tabular array farther shows that logistics and equipment available at Harar municipal office towards SWM.

Further, the personal interview with director of the municipality revealed the undermentioned facts with respect to bing adult male power responsible for MSWM in Harar metropolis and available sanitation stuffs:

No professionals is available presently

No budget is available to enroll professional presently

Many day-to-day bets have left the service as they could acquire better wage in private sector like infirmaries, mills, hotels and sweeping concern houses

There exists a sever short-fall in sanitation cogwheels such as manus baseball mitts, masks, and uniforms specially made for street and lane cleansing and whatever available were torn, broken and withered.

Lack of implements such as forks and spades for refuse aggregation

Most of the wheel barrows are non in service- rendition status

He besides mentioned that public consciousness with respect to MSWM in the metropolis should be enhanced as municipality entirely can non make a applaudable work in this respect without support from the populace at big.

Table 5 Available municipal logistics and equipment for SWM

Consecutive

Number

Name of equipment

Measure

Remark

1

Garbage trucks

3

1 non-functional

2

Communal containers

36

Functioning

3

Wheel barrows

113

No precise information available

4

Forks

15

No precise information available

5

Hoes

6

No precise information available

6

Spades

5

No precise information available

Beginning: Harar Municipal Office – 2010 Statisticss

As we see above, the municipal handling of SWM could non be effectual as there was n’t required manpower, logistics and equipment at Harar municipal office. Therefore, there were booby traps in SWM in the metropolis. The following tabular array that contains the information gathered from the sample population in this respect.

Table 6 Garbage Collection and Street Cleaning Frequency

Activity

Weekly Frequency at

Amernur Kebele

Weekly Frequency at

Jinela Kebele

Remarks

From Sample Population

Garbage Collection

From Households

Seldom

1

Family members merely take the trash to the new wave

Garbage Collection

From Containers

2

2-3

There were times when refuse was non collected for two hebdomads

Street Cleaning

3

2

Largely dirty due to the presence of large market

Lane Cleaning

Rare

Sometimes

They may clean sometimes upon perennial petitions

Sanitizing the Containers

Very seldom

Very seldom

It is believed to be done at the Municipality by taking them in refuse trucks

Remembrance of Spilled Garbage

Not seen

Not seen

Spilled garbage is merely kept on the road/lane ; may be cleaned following clip

Beginning: Own study 2009-10

It is really clear from table 5 that the MSWM is non effectual as the sanitation squad could non execute their responsibilities to the needed criterion and frequence as there was short falls in work force, equipment handiness and logistics at the municipality in this respect.

Furthermore, the personal interview with the caput, Department of urban sanitation, beautification and regulative enforcement which is responsible for MSWM in Harar metropolis the undermentioned facts had come to visible radiation:

With the Rapid City enlargement, and increasing waste coevals rate of the society, these pieces of available equipment are non sufficient to run into the day-to-day demand. Furthermore, the vehicles spent much of their clip in garages for care. The available vehicles meant for refuse aggregation efficaciously map merely for 215 twenty-four hours per annum.

Further, harmonizing to Metaferia Consulting Engineering ( 2009 ) , the SW aggregation container demand was one waste container ( 8m3 capacity ) is believed to function between 2000-2500 people. Assuming that 2500 people can utilize one container, the entire figure of containers required in 2008 was 52 ; this means an extra 15 containers should hold been made available by so to ease the waste aggregation services. Hence, the present demand is much higher than what was required in 2008 as more people had come into the metropolis for their supports. This factor is soon the main subscriber towards ineffectualness of MSWM in Harar metropolis.

A group treatment was held with 20 workers drawn from all the sub-divisions who volunteered to portion their sentiments and positions on MSWM. All the points discussed above with respect to solid waste direction of Harar municipality were raised in the treatment and the responses from all the participants were near similar. The group selected one senior member as their representative to reflect their corporate positions in this respect. The box below contains the corporate positions of the group as expressed by the representative of the group.

The municipality is really sincere and difficult working towards SWM. It is our responsibility to maintain the metropolis neat and clean. The populace has given us the authorization in this respect. Peoples complain that the metropolis is full of solid waste which is non true. We keep containers in several topographic points for the populace to set their accrued waste into them. However, some of the people misuse it for which we should non be held responsible. Some voluntarily bring their animate beings and allow them scrounge in the containers. Many times we told the junior-grade bargainers who sit near the waste containers and sell their things to unclutter away from those topographic points. When they see us, they move off. However, within proceedingss they are back at that place. It is the job of attitude of people. We are so difficult working. However, the support from concerned quarters that we should hold sometimes is minimal or below demand. The handiness of vehicles and implements are instances in point. Some of our vehicles are excessively old to be operated efficaciously. They visit garage several times for care. Some of the implements are either damaged or under fix. The wheels of several barrows are non in order. The available work force is non in proportion to the of all time turning population and increasing solid waste coevals in the metropolis. New infirmaries and several new hotels have emerged. They produce a batch of solid waste. Building building and route care besides produce solid wastes on day-to-day footing. On the other manus, the adult male power available in the municipality for MSWM and the budget remain inactive for several old ages now. Furthermore, the populace does non collaborate with us. Some of them look upon us as if sanitation workers are low grade people with inferior quality. We are non motivated by public. Further, the compensation we get for our work is non attractive. People work in private sector making the same occupation are acquiring better wages than we do and they get extra benefits such as over-time payments and wellness allowances. No preparation is offered to us to upgrade our accomplishments. The contract employers among us are ever worried about their continuance in the occupation as their occupations are non yet made permanent. It is true that the municipal governments are ever seeking their best to better the on the job status for us. Yet, the sum of refuse that we have to roll up and dispose is no manner near to the capablenesss that we have. To ease the state of affairs with respect to SWM private sector should come forward to portion the duties with us.

3.5 Municipal Finance for SWM

As we had discussed in the literature reappraisal, the budget allotted to province authoritiess by the cardinal ( federal ) authorities for MSWM patterns is normally below the needed sum taking into consideration the addition of refuse accumulated at the terminal of each twenty-four hours and the needed SW managing system This is true to Harar municipality besides. The fiscal beginning of the sanitation squad is from the one-year budget allocated for edifice and vehicle care, payments and allowances, sanitation service alteration, purchase of sanitation equipment and letter paper, fuel outgo and wages of the employees of the sanitation squad. As the collected information indicates that, in 2008 the squad received Birr 200,000.00 merely for refuse aggregation services. Based on the informations gathered from municipality, to efficaciously roll up the waste generated in the metropolis, the municipality needs around Birr 350,000.00. However, the existent one-year budget allocated for aggregation was merely Birr 237,000.00 in 2008-09 fiscal twelvemonth that was 67.7 % of the needed sum. Therefore, the budget allocated yearly for waste aggregation is far from equal and low. Furthermore, no budget is available for related activities such as refuse disposal, recycling and composting. Therefore, no such activities are soon undertaken by Harar municipality except that of roll uping the refuse and dumping them in sites which in bend is responsible for several socio-economic jobs that we discuss in the undermentioned pages of this chapter.

Furthermore, a big part of the budget so allocated for MSWM yearly is normally spent in the first few months of the fiscal twelvemonth and a small sum of money is available for MSWM for the remainder of the twelvemonth. Thus, the MSWM patterns loses impulse as the twelvemonth progresses. When the new budget is available, extremely demanding disbursals such as edifice and vehicles care and purchase of indispensable and fundamentally needed stuffs for MSWM should be met which attracts a big amount of money.

Socio Economic Assessment

We have discussed above the land realities that exist at Harar municipality with respect to SWM with respect to manpower, logistics, and available budget and so on. We have earlier discussed on the population addition and the grade of land usage in the city/study country. These factors come upon to a great extent on the efficiency of MSWM in the metropolis and could non present the expected quality in SWM services. Now we shall discourse the socio economic appraisal influenced by the desiring MSWM in the metropolis. the information that follows are collected from sample family study utilizing a mini-interview agenda, focal point group treatments and interviews with cardinal sources. The entire figure of family chosen was 100 ( 50 from each Kebele ) , 10 Key Informants ( 5 from each Kebele ) and 2 focal point group treatments ( one clip in each Kebele ) .

Urbanization

Urbanization is a world in Harar metropolis. It continues to take topographic point about on day-to-day footing. Consequently, one can see a hapless ocular visual aspect of the metropolis and it will hold negative impacts on touristry and investing chances

Low aggregation coverage by the municipality, irregular aggregation services, and deficiency of appropriate land fill site are the main causes of solid waste direction system in Harar metropolis. Public normally misused the solid waste installations, such as the container meant for refuse aggregation for human body waste particularly in Amernur Kebele. The research worker observed big columns of house flies and people collect stuffs from the refuse that they could utilize for themselves or for sale to bring forth income in the two Kebeles studied.

Solid Waste Generated

The sample families in both Kebeles generated close to similar sum of refuse weekly. However, the SW generated by the large market in Jinela Kebele was non included. The following tabular array shows this fact

Table 7 Weekly coevals of SW by Sample HHs

Activity

Solid waste in KG

Location

Entire

Amernur

Jinela

%

No of HH

%

No of HH

%

No of HH

Solid Waste generated per hebdomad

& lt ; 5

6

3.

8

4

7

7

5-10

60

30

62

31

61

61

& gt ; 10

34

17

30

15

32

32

Entire

100

50

100

50

100

100

Beginning: Own Survey 2009-10

It is seen above that the families generate a immense volume of refuse at the terminal of each hebdomad which add more burden and force per unit area on the MSWM system of Harar municipality.

Furthermore, the types of solid waste generated by the families, as per the information gathered for this undertaking, were several and it will do the undertaking of the Harar municipality hard when they start recycling procedure and composting activities. Furthermore, so aggregation procedure is really much strained due to assorted forms and sizes of different solid wastes generated by the house holds ; accordingly, as the municipality does non hold the proficient know-how, machinery and suitably designed vehicles to roll up those Solid wastes, they pile up all the SW stuffs together and dump it at the bing sites. The following table depicts the per centum of assorted solid wastes the families generate per hebdomad.

Table 8 Types of Solid Wastes Generated

Type of solid waste

Location

Average, %

Amernur

% of the entire SW generated

Jinela

% of the sum

SW generated

Ash

23.10

23.85

23.475

Damaged & A ; unserviceable HH things

0.75

0.85

0.800

Food

16.50

17.50

17.000

Grass

2.70

1.10

1.900

Paper

12.25

11.75

12.000

Plastic

22.30

22.10

22.200

Residue of Chat

18.10

19.75

18.925

Fibers

2.20

2.05

2.125

Wood

2.10

1.05

1.625

Entire

100

100

100

Beginning: Own Survey 2009-10

Among them, the plastic waste is a large challenge to the governments as it will non break up for centuries together and it pollutes the environment and is the chief cause of carnal owes in the survey country. Peoples who burn it are exposed to toxic gas that may be fatal to the family members. Therefore, assorted types of SW coevals negatively affect the MSWM system in Harar metropolis.

Health Hazards

It goes without stating that improper and unequal MSWM will ensue in wellness jeopardies to the local population in general and those who live in propinquity to garbage containers and near to stack of trash at the street corner and/or in privy topographic points right inside the home houses. It is true to the instance of Harar metropolis. It is believed that several types of disease are prevalent in the metropolis that are caused by disintegrating solid waste and pungent odor generated by the rotten solid wastes that are wide-spared in the metropolis in general and in Amernur and Jinela Kebeles in peculiar.

Harmonizing to Metaferia Consulting Engineers Plc. ( 2009 ) the metropolis might be one of the oldest to hold a wellness installation get downing 1894 E.C. In 1997 E.C. public infirmaries entirely have the capacity to supply service for 656 inmates. The wellness sector has 309 medical staffs in 1997 ( E.C. ) of which 180 work forces and 129 female. Harmonizing to the 1997 ( 2004/05 ) wellness related indexs, the part has 3 wellness centres, 5 infirmaries, 20 wellness stations, 23 clinics, 4 pharmaceuticss, 13 drug stores and 3 Rural Drug Vendors. The wellness establishments are equipped with 656 beds ( 2004/05 ) and more than 300 qualified staff.

Furthermore, the study of Harari Health Bureau ( 2008 ) points out that in the last 12 old ages acute upper respiratory, pneumonia, malaria and gastro-enteritis, enteric infection, dysentery and infection of tegument & A ; hypodermic tissue and other diseases that have affected the people of Harar and environing. It is widely believed by the populace and supported by wellness establishments that came into being in the metropolis in recent old ages, the magnitude of the job seems high and there is an indicant that outgrowth of these diseases is associate to solid waste direction. The violative odor of some topographic points, as mentioned earlier, mismanaged liquid and solid waste along the unfastened ditches and waste bins could do such diseases. The following table gives the inside informations of the 7 prevailing diseases that are believed to hold been caused by weak MSWM system.

Table 9 Diseases that are Believed to be Caused by Weak MSWM System

No

Type of Disease

1987-1996

EC

1997-1999

EC

Entire

Cases Registered

1

Acute Upper Respiratory Infection

46708

16813

63521

11

Dysentery

12268

3525

15793

6

Gastro Enteritis

32780

8661

41441

12

Infection of Skin & A ; Subcutaneous Tissue

6831

3509

10340

8

Intestinal Infection

23502

0

23502

3

Malarias

37635

12897

50532

2

Pneumonia

41305

12879

54184

Beginning: Harari Health Bureau, 2008

The community in Harar metropolis is cognizant of the nexus between MSWM and outgrowth of assorted diseases. Irrespective of their educational degrees and socio-economic criterions, the sample population strongly believes that weak SWM is mostly responsible for the diseases that the community suffers from in the metropolis. The following table depicts the positions of the sample population ‘ positions in this respect

Table 10 Positions of Sample Population on MSWM caused Diseases

Consecutive Number

Name of the Disease

Samples from Amernur Kebele

Samples from Jinela

Kebele

Cardinal Informants

at Amernur

Kebele

Cardinal Informants

At

Jinela

Kebele

FGD held in

Amernur

Kebele

FGD held in Jinela

Kebele

1

Acute Upper Respiratory Infection

5

1

— –

All agreed that all diseases except the disease Infection of Skin & A ; Hypodermic

Tissue are caused by weak MSWM patterns

All except

One

( who had uncertainties on the direct nexus between MSWM and assorted diseases ) agreed that all diseases except the disease dysentery

Are caused by weak MSWM patterns

2

Dysentery

7

— –

1

3

Gastro Enteritis

3

— –

— –

4

Infection of Skin & A ; Hypodermic

Tissue

4

— –

1

5

Intestinal Infection

9

3

— —

— –

6

Malarias

20

22

3

2

7

Pneumonia

7

6

1

1

Entire Samples

50+

50= N 100

5

5

All participants

All participants

Beginning: Own Survey 2009-10

It is apparent from the facts cited above that MSWM and the out interruption of certain diseases in the metropolis are linked. The facts mentioned above are excessively important to be ignored. As we have looked at the exposure in chapter one of this undertaking where the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life of the metropolis dwellers passes on in close sorority with the refuse aggregation containers, there is adequate room to believe that the seven diseases cited above are caused by the failing of the MSWM system in the metropolis. The information collected from medical establishments at Harar and the Harari Health Bureau in this respect can non be set aside. Hence, it is rational to reason that due to the inability of Harar municipal office to run into the current immense demand of SWM, the possibility for the eruption of the said seven diseases in the metropolis really much exists.

Impact of Household Income on SWM and Attitude of Households towards SWM in the absence of an Effective MSWM in the City

We have discussed in chapter two ( literature reappraisal ) that poverty/low income influences SWM system It is an recognized fact by all histrions in the filed of SWM that the degree of income that a family has plays a cardinal function in SWM. The informations collected from the samples selected for this undertaking revealed the fact that the household income of the bulk in the metropolis is considered to be low. Taking the chances available in the metropolis for income coevals overall annual income in the scope of Birr 5000-9000 is fixed as low, Birr 9000-15000 as medium and above Birr 15000 as high for this undertaking. However, HH one-year income below Birr 5000 was besides considered to include samples who live on press releases given by authorities and non-government organisations and whose income was fickle as they have no fixed agencies of income. Furthermore, the aggregative income of all gaining members of the family was taken into consideration in a given scope of income. The metropolis, particularly the survey countries Amernur and Jinela Kebeles, comprises civil retainers, bargainers, day-to-day pay earners such as agents, cab helpers ( locally known as woyalas ) and unskilled workers. The mean minimal wage for civil retainers of different classs, the minimal day-to-day pay collectible as per ILO ( International Labor Organization ) guidelines for day-to-day pay earners and the prevalent rate of payment for unskilled workers in the metropolis were the footing for repairing the above cited one-year income ranges.the following tabular array explains clearly the relationship that exists between HH income and SWM.

Furthermore, when the municipal authorization responsible for SWM could non pump effectual services into MSWM, the manners of family degree refuse aggregation, storage and disposal are negatively influenced. Data collected for this survey support this thought as it is

explained in so following tabular array.

Table 11 Household Income and Modes

of Solid Waste Collection,

Storage and Disposal

Garbage Collection Methods, Storage, Disposal at Households

( a ) ( B ) ( degree Celsius ) ( vitamin D ) ( vitamin E ) ( degree Fahrenheit ) ( g ) ( H ) ( I ) ( J ) ( K )

Samples from Kebele

N=100

( 50 from each Kebele )

Annual Income

Birr

& lt ; 5000

( Low )

Annual Income

Birr

5000-9000

( Medium )

Annual Income

Birr

9000-15000

( High )

Annual Income

Birr

& gt ; 15000

Airtight tins

Use and Throw

Plastic bags

That HH members put into nearby container

Back Yard Pit with lid

Plastic Bucket with / without screen

Hiring Manpower to dispose refuse to the Municipal Container

Throw

at Street

corner

covered in a paper

Burn Properly at the back pace of house at regular intervals

Put into nearby sewage

Collect in burlap bags for yearss together and empty them in culverts/

under route Bridgess

Put the waste into house latrines

Not worried about waste direction

Amernur

1+

19+

25+

5=50

2

23

2

3

1

7

3

4

2

1

2

Jinela

3+

22+

16+

9= 50

1

20

1

2

2

5

0

6

7

4

2

Entire

4+

41+

41+

14=100

3

43+

3+

5+

3+

12+

3+

10+

9+

5+

4=100Source: Own Survey 2009-10

This tabular array above clearly shows the refuse generated by the family is disposed of in different manners.

46

This was because there was n’t any fixed manner of aggregation by the MSWM system. It is apparent that no refuse transporting vehicles come to a fixed topographic point in the Kebele at a given period of clip in a hebdomad. Hence, families are forced to dispose of the refuse accumulated in their ain ways as dictated by their economic state of affairss. As we see in the tabular array above, there are people whose income exceeds Birr 15000 per annum. However, their entire figure ( 14 ) is non represented in the better ways of refuse aggregation and disposal ( a, degree Celsius and vitamin E ) at family degree. This may be due to the fact that the families handles the SWM in a manner they feel fit and executable as MSWM does non hold any influence on them.

It is besides apparent that 36 families follow really unsafe manners of accretion and disposal ( f, H, I and J ) of solid waste. The survey revealed the fact that besides dictated by their economic conditions the inability of MSWM in the metropolis besides contributes towards these manners of aggregation, storage and disposal of SW by families which in bend cause the eruption of such diseases we discussed in 3.6.3 above.

However, the tabular array indicates the economic impact on SWM by family as we see merely 3 out 100 samples selected hire work force to transport the trash from their houses to the available refuse containers placed by municipal governments which are in fact in shocking conditions as we see in the exposure in chapter one.

3.7 Information Dissemination

It is an undeniable fact that information handiness and exchange mechanisms are critical to any field in today ‘s universe. It goes without stating that information plays a major function to set up an effectual MSWM in any given metropolis or town. As we have seen in the 2nd chapter, several literature reappraisals supported it and suggested several ways for information airing. An of import facet of effectual MSWM is Public Private Partnership ( PPP ) which did non issue in Harar metropolis. Several factors might be responsible for this scenario. Yet, the portion played by information airing in this respect is critical. The following tabular array explains more on this issue.

Table 12 Beginnings of Information Dissemination

Consecutive Number

HHs Base for Obtaining Information on MSWM

Amernur Kebele

Jinela Kebele

Frequently

Sometimes

Rarely

Not At All

I do non Know

Entire

Families

Frequently

Sometimes

Rarely

Not At All

I do non Know

Entire

Families

1

Social Participation Such As *Iquib, Mahabir and Cultural Meetings

0

10

23

12

5

50

1

15

20

11

3

50

2

Visiting Harar Municipality

0

0

5

43

2

50

1

2

5

41

1

50

3

Through Fliers and Notices

0

24

21

2

3

50

0

28

20

1

1

50

4

Particular Kebele/Municipal Meetings Convened for Information Dissemination on MSWM

0

0

1

47

2

50

0

2

3

41

4

50

5

Newspaper Features

0

0

3

42

5

50

0

0

2

45

3

50

6

Eye Catching Public Advertisements in City Centers and Places of Large Gathering Such as Cinema Hall and Entertainment Topographic points

0

0

5

35

10

50

0

0

6

36

8

50

7

Road Shows Explaining the Dangers of Inefficient SW Handling

0

0

0

48

2

50

0

0

0

49

1

50

8

On Electronic Media Such as Television and Radio

1

6

28

9

6

50

2

9

27

8

4

50

9

Propaganda by GOs and NGOs

0

0

8

40

2

50

0

0

5

41

4

50

10

Person to Person Exchange of Information

17

27

5

1

0

50

18

29

2

0

1

50

Beginning: Own Survey 2009-10 *Iquib = An informal family degree micro salvaging activity Mahabir = Recognized Association

The tabular array above revealed really interesting facts on the beginnings of public consciousness creative activity on MSWM. In a quantitative survey, tonss should hold been given for each option and the P value could hold been calculated to convey out their significance degrees of influence on MSWM.

It is rather unmindful from the tabular array above that the populace in Harar metropolis in general and the sample families for this undertaking in peculiar had no sensible exposure to information on MWSM. Public advertizement run on MSWM as it is done in the instance of HIV/AIDS and commercial merchandises is non prevailing in the metropolis. There are public amusement topographic points at Harar metropolis where the public ticker footstep lucifers and other societal maps and national events. However, it is obvious from the informations collected in this respect that no effectual and broad spread advertizement run was done on the mass media on MSWM in general. One could see several position on assorted issues are displayed in the metropolis at topographic points of public attractive force such as the entryway to the metropolis, hotels, school compounds, route cut-outs and the similar. However, one barely sees any such show on MSWM in the metropolis. It was reported to the research worker during informations aggregation that pupils from different establishments clean the metropolis a twosome of times in twelvemonth which might non do the demand to set up a well informed and strong based MSWM in the metropolis. It may assist make consciousness that waste stuffs should be collected but it does non assist much to make consciousness on how those waste stuffs collected are kept hygienically and disposed off scientifically. Yet, it is cheering to observe that the sample families had given the information that they portion information on MSWM through individual to individual exchange of information. Fliers and notices came 2nd with respect to information airing on MSWM. The information showed electronic media, advertizements, runs, and propaganda were non effectual in this respect. It was besides obvious that the Municipality could non carry on any route shows and street briefing, instead traveling to each family, to make a wider consciousness on SWM.

3.8 Willingness to Pay

It is fact that willing to pay for MSWM depends chiefly upon the economic position of the families. Hoover, informations collected for this undertaking identified other factors that influenced WTP of the families for MSWM services. As we see in the tabular array 10, the one-year income of 14 families fell in the class of high income group. Yet, merely 3 families hired labour to dispose the accrued family refuse suitably. Therefore, factors other than income had its influence towards WTP as shown in the tabular arraies below.

When the sample families were asked the per centum of their one-year income that they were willing to pay for MSWM services, the responses received revealed the fact that most of the HHs are non willing to lend any sensible sum of money towards MSWM in the metropolis. The census takers and the research worker explained the importance of effectual MSWM in footings of homo, animate being and environmental wellness, pollution and socio economic jobs and duties. However, the willingness to pay by the families for MSWM was rather low or negligible.

Table 13 Willingness to Pay in Percentage of Annual income

Kebele

Households willingness to Pay in per centum of their several one-year Income

1-3 %

4-6 %

7-9 %

10 % & gt ;

Not willing to pay

No response

for ain grounds

Entire families

Amernur

4

2

1

1

5

37

50

Jinela

5

1

1

0

3

40

50

Entire HHs

100

Beginning: Own Survey 2009-10

Upon acquiring this information from the family, this fact was discussed in focal point group treatment and in interviews with cardinal sources. The positions expressed by members of the focal point group were really much similar to that of the cardinal sources. Many grounds were cited in this respect and eventually seven major grounds were selected and the Numberss of cardinal sources who supported each of them was recorded and finally the positions were ranked. The inside informations are shown in the tabular array below in this respect.

Table 14 Positions of Key Informants towards Payment for MSWM Services

Consecutive Number

Positions and Opinions

Number of Key Informants Supported from Amernur Kebele

n= 05+

Number of Key Informants Supported from

Jinela

Kebele

n = 05+

Entire

From both Kebeles

N= 10

Rank

It should be

Provided free of cost utilizing revenue enhancement money

4

5

9

1

Payment should be voluntary and of personal involvement and capableness

2

1

3

4

HHs are non major subscribers to SW, hence they should non pay

5

4

9

1

Industries and Hospitals should pay for it

4

3

7

2

Merely hotels, both little and large ; authorities and private should be charged

3

3

6

3

Service minded NGOs should take attention of it

2

1

3

4

International

Agencies should pay for it as MSWM is bad due to planetary heating and clime alterations

1

0

1

5

Beginning: Own study 2009-10

As shown in the tabular array above the positions “ It should be provided free of cost utilizing revenue enhancement money ” and “ HHs are non major subscribers to SW, hence they should non pay ” rank foremost. The positions ” Industries and infirmaries should pay for it ” ranks 2nd whereas the position A? Only hotels, both little and large ; authorities and private should be charged ” ranks third. The positions ” Payment should be voluntary and of personal involvement and capableness ” and “ Service minded NGOs should take attention of it ” rank 4th. The position “ International

Agencies should pay for it as MSWM is bad due to planetary heating and clime alterations ” ranks fifth. As literature reappraisals suggest WTP is non merely motivated by the economic criterion of the HH, but besides other corporate positions and sentiments of the community involved go manus in manus with the findings of this undertaking.

3.9 The Waste Pickers at the Dump Site

The research worker manus picked individuals during his visit to the dumping site. They were one aged adult male believed to be in his late 1950ss and an aged adult female believed to be in her early 1950ss, a immature lady believed to be in her early mid-twentiess and two immature male childs believed to be in their mid-twentiess. In fact they were foremost frightened at the sight of research worker making the dumping site thought that person came from jurisprudence enforcement bureaus to catch them. Upon account by research worker on the intent of his visit, they were concerted to reply the inquiries raised. Most of the replies were similar and the undermentioned box represents the kernel of the interview that gives us a bird ‘s oculus position of the socio economic conditions of the refuse choosers.

It is a atrocious fact that all of them doing a life by picking solid wastes and selling them at any monetary value offered to them by any one. They have no societal life as such. They each the dumping site early in the forenoon and choice solid wastes until late in the afternoon. They go to market tardily in the afternoon and seek to sell whatever they picked. Mostly they pick plastics and have on out fabrics, empty bottles and packaged H2O containers. They get a meager sum of money for these stuffs. They have no lasting shelter and they live on the pavings. They beg in the street when they could non acquire o site due to rain and other grounds. It is physically seeable that all of them are enduring from both chronic and acute diseases and they openly admit that they have diseases. They are good cognizant that what they do is a unsafe occupation and they continue making it as they have no options for their support. All of them are nonreaders and they have no household as such. They are greatly exposed to toxic gas emanation from the shit and rather often they are injured in the procedure of aggregation by broken spectacless and other crisp edged stuffs ; yet, they can non give it up as their very survival really much depends on the occupation they are making. They are exposed to societal immoralities and the adult females particularly are exposed to sexual maltreatments and molestation. Furthermore, they believe that they are out-castes and the community looks down on them. It is besides a fact that they are greatly interested to acquire off from solid waste picking from the refuse shit and travel for an alternate support. However, no such chance is available at present to rehabilitate them. They have no entree to any medical installation as such. Occasionally they treated at authorities infirmaries. Soon No non authorities organisation works in the metropolis to help peoples of these sorts. Very seldom they are given nutrient press releases by any giver bureaus. Their life is a commiseration to all ; however, none comes frontward to cut down their societal and physical torment. Despite the facts mentioned above, they remain thankful to some persons who extend them assisting custodies at times. They said it natural that they fight among themselves, if non often, on the issue of ownership for the solid waste picked particularly when the picked point is expected to bring good monetary value such as a little gold or silver decoration or a gentleman that contains money. The two aged persons involved in this occupation for over 30 old ages.

3.10 The Dump Sites

The shit sites are non far off from the metropolis. It is fact that no organic structure wants it at the dorsum of their houses. Yet, the present shit sites are really near to the out skirts of the metropolis. As the metropolis is fast spread outing, really shortly these shit sites will go portion of the metropolis. As we discussed in chapter one, during showery seasons they contaminate the H2O supply, therefore pose wellness jeopardies to the populace. The toxic substances that come out these shit sites are believed to be great. The shit sites are non even decently fenced ; hence air current and animate beings bring the rubbish back into the metropolis. As any effectual disposal mechanism does non be in the metropolis at present, these refuse mopess decay in clip and foul the air that the public breathe. They besides breed misquotations. The sample families, cardinal sources and the municipal workers have expressed their serious concern in this respect. All expect that this job should be addressed sooner than subsequently taking the well being of the populace into consideration. Furthermore, the trash in the shit site is burnt by the refuse aggregators for several grounds at regular intervals. Therefore, there is ample opportunity that the fire may distribute to the vicinity if it is non decently extinguished. Further, when the difficult plastic pieces are burnt, they emanate risky gases that are really much unsafe to human wellness when breathed. Some air-born diseases are spread by the shit sites often during clime alterations. Some vipers make the shit site as their place and threaten worlds. Domestic animate beings such as cattles and oxen stray over the shit sites and eat the plastic bags that make them ill. The foul odor comes out of the dumps spreads common ball and allergic reaction to tonss of people in the metropolis. Harar is a historical metropolis of international celebrity and the really sight of these shit sites would be unpleasant to the eyes of the tourers who bring in considerable sum of foreign currency. The seeping liquid from the shit site easy but steadily seeps into the nearby all conditions and asphalted roads and lesson their span of life. As the sum of refuse additions at the terminal of each twenty-four hours, it is obvious the figure of shit sites will besides increase and finally necklace the metropolis to the involvement and liking of none. All the families, members of focal point group treatments and the forces interviewed for this undertaking are good cognizant of this job and discerning about the well being of Harar of tomorrow.