Ecology Of Wild Leopards Information Technology Essay

The rubric of the undertaking Ecology of wild leopards is related to bioinformatics and chief purpose of this undertaking is to develop a web application which includes designing, bring forthing and measuring a package that allows entree, tabular matter and graphical show of prey species of wild leopards recorded at different times and locations in an African wild modesty. For the users convenience user friendly interfaces are created to come in and recover the information. Web site is besides provided by a hunt engine through user can entree any informations nowadays in the database.

As all the demands needed to develop are fixed, domain specifications likely wo n’t alter within a short clip because of this waterfall life rhythm methodological analysis will be more disposed for this undertaking. I had done my undertaking design utilizing 3-tier architecture and developed the web application utilizing with vb and Sql server as the back terminal.

I am certain that I fulfilled all the demands that have given by the client to bring forth a web site and this certification is an inclusion of all the inside informations sing my undertaking.


I avail this chance to show my deep sense of gratitude and bosom full thanks to the direction of University Of Hertfordshire for giving me an chance to make this undertaking in their honored organisation

I express my sincere thanks to my supervisor Mr. Boekhoerst Rene Te Faculty of Bioinformatics, who gave me an thought for making this ecology of wild leopard ‘s undertaking. His changeless support, encouragement and valuable feedback throughout the undertaking helped me to complete my thesis in a successful manner.

I would wish to thank my undertaking coach Mr. Nasser Abouzakhar Faculty of computing machine scientific discipline, for set uping Mr. Boekhoerst Rene Te as my undertaking supervisor and supplying me with necessary instructions in accomplishing my ends.

I express my sincere thanks to my friends, household and module members for their support to finish my thesis.








Software Development lifecycle

Requirement Phase

Existing System

Proposed System

Analysis Phase

Hardware Requirements

Software Requirements

Planing Phase

Module Description


Data Flow Diagrams

Database Tables

Database Diagram

User Interface ( GUI )

Development Phase

Database Implementation

User interface Implementation

Heuristic Evaluation


Trial Cases

Bug List

Conclusion & A ; Future Work



Chapter -1



The undertaking is about the ecology of wild leopards, and “ ecology is defined as the survey of the factors act uponing the distribution and copiousness of species in clip ” . These factors can be abiotic ( physical for case conditions conditions, dirt construction etc. ) or biotic ( biological factors such as presence of other species ) . Both abiotic and biotic factors can impact the population kineticss ( alteration in composing in footings of gender/age categories ) of that species, which may ensue in some species going more abundant than others and in some instances even exclusion of certain species by others. Speciess can act upon each others population kineticss by agencies of some interspecies relationships such as mutualism.

To analyze the impact of these factors on the distribution and copiousness of species ( in this instance of leopards ) , ecologists collect informations during jaunts. These informations need to be stored kept up and retrievable. The topic of the undertaking is to develop a supporting package system that allows entree, tabular matter and graphical show of prey species of wild leopards recorded at different times and locations in an African wild modesty [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] .

For acquiring more information about the wild leopard ecology, I have gone through “ Leopard ecology and preservation undertaking in Khuste modesty founded by Monika, in which the end of the undertaking is to advance the long term viability and preservation of this close and beautiful large cats, and its accents on developing efficient and convenient methods of protecting farm animal, collaborate with the locals and advance environmental instruction ” [ 3 ] .


The chief purpose of the undertaking is to develop a web site for the leopard ecology & A ; preservation plan through which they can come in the information about prey species of wild leopards recorded at different times and locations in an African wildlife modesty. The web site is besides provided by the hunt engine through which any user can entree the required informations nowadays in the database through crystal studies. Other purpose is to bring forth a papers which will be dwelling up of full elements of the undertaking saying from its analysis to the deployment of a undertaking.


In order to finish my undertaking I have set a few aims and I divided those into two classs.

Core aims:

Producing a full set of demands like garnering information about faculties like jaunt, location, observation, species which are needed to develop the ecology of wild leopard application.

Planing and implementing a paradigm version which reflects the concluding web site traveling to be developed.

Planing the database system based on the possible faculties and bomber faculties that are analyzed during analysis & A ; demands garnering stages.

Execution of the user interface and linking it to the database.

Supplying hunt engine for efficient entree of different species consequently with the clip, location and their age and gender wise.

Execution of the coverage system to expose the consequences obtained from the hunt engine.

Testing and measuring the system produced.

Progress aims:

Uploading of assorted images that are taken by the research worker during their jaunt clip into the database.

Analyzing the connectivity of different file formats ( excel ) and using mechanisms that allows the use to those file formats.



This chapter includes treatment about package development life rhythm ( SDLC ) , which is all about assorted stage that involve in developing an application.

Software development life rhythm or System development life rhythm

“ The systems development life rhythm ( SDLC ) is a conceptual theoretical account used in undertaking direction that describes the phases involved in an information system development undertaking, from an initial feasibleness survey through care of the completed application ” [ 10 ] . SDLC is similar to H2O autumn theoretical account in which for a given life rhythm the result of the one stage will be the input for its following stage. It consists of 6 chief stages [ 11 ] .

Requirements stage or Initial stage

Analysis stage

Design stage

Coding stage

Testing stage

Deployment stage

Requirements stage or Initial stage: In this stage all the demands are gathered from the client or client. In instance of baffled clients or some ambiguities in the demands a paradigm which is a bluish print of the terminal merchandise is developed.

Requirement templet is prepared dwelling up of all the demands of client is produced.

Analysis stage: In this stage the demand templet is good studied out of which the possibilities are assessed ( feasibleness survey ) , if the demands are executable a suited engineering to develop this application will be selected

SRS ( system demand specification ) papers consists of hardware and package demands are produced.

Design stage: In this stage the undertaking is divided into possible faculties and sub faculties to for which uml diagrams are drawn. Possible database tabular array and their several user interface screens are designed along with it pseudo codification is produced in order to assist the coders in coding stage.

Technical design papers consists of planing facets of the application is produced

Coding stage: In this stage the developers with the aid of design papers produced in the above stage develops the beginning codification, for this the coders will follow some cryptography criterions like colour cryptography, noticing etc.

Beginning codification papers is produced at the terminal of this stage.

Testing stage: In this stage examiners will travel through the demands papers and bring forth the trial instances consequently. Once the application is available examiners will put to death the trial instances, if any bugs are identified they will be inform to developers to decide the bugs. It will be carried out till the merchandise is free from defects.

Quality assured merchandise is the result of this stage.

Deployment stage: In this stage merchandise is deployed into the client environment and care support will be provided to the client [ 11 ] .



In this chapter the treatment is all about the demand stage in which the initial measure in developing a undertaking is taken by garnering all the demands from the client.

As per my undertaking my client is Mr. Boekhoerst Rene Te Faculty of Bioinformatics. He explained me about the “ Leopard ecology and preservation ” undertaking in Khuste modesty founded by Monika and jobs that are being faced. In the bing application the information that has been recorded by the research workers at different times and locations in African wild modesty, were stored in excel sheets. If the user want to entree the inside informations of a species that are observed in peculiar clip or location it is non possible for the concerned user to recover the several file. The bing one which is based up on the excel sheet merely helps the researches to hive away the informations.

Problems with the bing undertaking:

The redundancy which leads to inconsistency

Lac of consolidation of figures

Difficult to bring forth required end product in suited formats

It is non user friendly

Time ingestion for informations retrieval is high

After explicating me about the bing undertaking and its jobs, he asked me to develop a new system which is capable of efficaciously carry throughing the undermentioned demands. He provided me a papers dwelling of information related to species, jaunt topographic points and excel sheets incorporating informations recorded by the research workers during their jaunt.

Requirements for proposed undertaking:

User friendly interface

New information should be easy entered

Avoiding redundancy of informations in the files

Image uploading installation

Report printing should be easy done

Time ingestion for informations retrieval should really less

Analyzing the connectivity of different file formats ( excel ) .

Supplying hunt engines



After roll uping all the demands specified by client, I have gone through a feasibleness survey to analyse if the client ‘s demands can be fulfilled. As the demands are executable plenty one start work on the engineerings which are good suited to develop this peculiar wild leopard application.

Based upon my analysis on the given demand for planing this user friendly website, I decided to utilize Asp.Net as a web based frame work to run the web application, vb while coding. As a back terminal to my application sqlserver 2005 should be a more flexible as both of them (, sql waiter ) are microsoft merchandises and there will be perfect coordination between them.

About Software:

This subdivision includes package that helps in constructing up of the application.

The word asp is acronym of active waiter page ; .net is an acronym of web enable engineering. is a web based frame work developed by Microsoft engineering to run web applications I used linguistic communication while coding. includes both 2-tier and 3-tier architecture, 3-tier architecture includes database bed in add-on to 2-tier in my application I am utilizing 3-tier architecture [ 4 ] , [ 5 ] .

Sql waiter 2005 express edition

As back terminal to my application I am utilizing the sqlserver which is besides developed by the Microsoft and it has perfect coordination with model. Ocular studio dramas editor function for both.Net and sq. waiter. In association with the.Net application database objects like stored processs can be written and deployed. By the combination of sqlserver we can easy pull strings and debug the mistakes [ 6 ] .

IIS ( internet information waiter )

IIS is a web waiter which is to be installed to run the web application developed in.Net, installation of IIS is simple and unafraid. By choosing the IIS cheque box after maintaining the operating system cadmium in the cadmium read-only memory of the system [ 7 ] .

A Hardware Requirements:

Processor Type: Intel Pentium processor

Processor Speed: 2.0 GHz

Difficult Disk: 20 Gb

Random-access memory: 1 Gb

Software Requirements:

Operating System: Windows XP

Front End: VISUAL STUDIO 2008 ( VB, ASP )

Back End: MS-SQL Waiter 2005

Web Server: IIS 5.1



Module Description

User Care: In order to keep the dependable and unafraid information this faculty has been designed. It provides the transparence of informations harmonizing to the mandate degree of several users such as decision maker degree, public degree.

Maestro Faculty: This faculty consists of unchanged informations and merely the decision maker has the authorization to convey up any alteration. All the nucleus inside informations like location type, sex age category type, flora type, species type and some acronyms are stored in this faculty. By keeping this maestro faculty we can salvage the sum of infinite in the waiter.

Excursion Faculty: This faculty is all about jaunt inside informations which chiefly includes Fieldss like jaunt day of the month, month, twelvemonth and peculiar recorded clip of the jaunt. It consists of some interesting Fieldss like temperature and humidness which are cardinal facets that considered by the biological people while detecting the species. The name of the research worker who records observation during jaunt is besides included.

Location Faculty: This faculty consists of inside informations related to the location on which the observation is traveling to take topographic point. It includes inside informations such as location Idaho and location type viz. pan or route along with its location type in inside informations such as path names ( A, B.. ) and pan names ( moreswe, sutswane.. ) . It besides includes inside informations about location flora type like shrub, savannah etc.

Observation Faculty: This faculty deals with the inside informations of a concerned species that have been observed by the research worker. It chiefly consists up of an observation Idaho which is cardinal field. The species id is noted along with the gender ( Male, Female, Unknown ) and age group ( Adult, Infant, Julian, Sub grownup, Unknown ) of the concerned species. Number of observations that done by the research worker is besides included in this faculty which helps in the farther rating of ascertained species.

Speciess Faculties: This faculty consists of all the inside informations related to the species such as species id which is alone, common name and scientific name of the species. It besides includes gestation period, organic structure weight of the species and a field which consists of inside informations about the species type ( Herbivorous, Omnivorous, and Carnivorous ) is besides included. Based upon the species id ( utilizing as foreign key ) all the inside informations of the several species can be accessed in the needed faculty.

For each of the faculties viz. excursion, location, observation and species faculties there are few buttons provided like insert to come in the values that are been observed by the research worker, update button to alter the antecedently entered values, find button for acquiring the concerned record on choosing primary cardinal values, delete button to take un necessary values that antecedently entered and refresh button to unclutter the values that present in the text Fieldss. Finally place button is provided in each screen on pressing this it will directs to the place page.

Image Uploading Module: Assorted images of the species that have been taken by the research worker during the clip of jaunt can be uploaded into the database by utilizing this faculty. It consists of dropdown box to choose the name of the species they have taken the image and there is a button to shop the image and the image chosen can be uploaded to the waiter on pressing the upload button. The uploaded images can be viewed in future with the aid of button show image. Unnecessary images can be deleted by the aid of delete button provided.

Search Engine: By utilizing this user can entree any information he would wish to see within the range of provided database. User will be provided by an interface dwelling up of assorted combinations of informations, for case – Supply the figure of herbivores from may to july in 2003 in path A of flora type shrub, copiousness of each species summed over its gender/age categories.


HEURISTIC Evaluation:

This chapter deals with the rating of web site in footings of its serviceability. The developed web site should be in such a manner that it can besides be operated by a novice user. Harmonizing to “ Jacob Nelson ” for a web site to be efficient and useable adequate it should obey 10 heuristic rules [ 12 ] .

Visibility of system position:

“ The system should ever maintain users informed about what is traveling on, through appropriate feedback within sensible clip ” [ 12 ] .

In this application the system advancement i.e. , during recovering informations from database, while uploading species images a hr glass pointer will be looking bespeaking that action is in advancement and besides with the aid of message box the position is shown to the user.

Match between system and the existent universe:

“ The system should talk the user ‘s linguistic communication, with words, phrases and constructs familiar to the user, instead than system-oriented footings. Follow real-world conventions, doing information look in a natural and logical order ” [ 12 ] .

Keeping the common adult male into consideration I have used a simple English words and phrases in the user interface screens like insert, delete, position, etc, through which a novitiate user can besides run this website really comfortably. No cutoff words and acronyms are used in my application.

User control and freedom:

“ Users frequently choose system maps by error and will necessitate a clearly marked “ exigency issue ” to go forth the unwanted province without holding to travel through an drawn-out duologue ” [ 12 ] .

The user who visits this ecology of wild leopards ‘ site is given complete freedom to travel from any one of the page to other web page of the site. For each web page HOME button is provided through which the user can be navigate to the chief page straight.

Consistency and criterions:

“ Users should non hold to inquire whether different words, state of affairss, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions ” [ 12 ] .

I have designed this application based upon certain criterions and throughout the site I have maintained the consistence like utilizing the same forms of buttons, utilizing the same theoretical account of grid in each page to expose the record inside informations. More over I did n’t used the same word for two occasions ( ambiguity is avoided ) like on pressing place it will direct to the chief page non to the other web pages.

Mistake bar:

“ Even better than good mistake messages is a careful design which prevents a job from happening in the first topographic point. Either eliminate erring conditions or look into for them and present users with a verification option before they commit to the action ” [ 12 ] .

As this application is non extremely security concerned, and informations entry and retrieval will be high through this site supplying conformation button to the each action may annoy the user. Probably the users can non confront any jobs on perpetrating their actions like infixing species informations, updating the bing informations without conforming, because every thing is transparently shown in the grid provided below the each screen and he have opportunity to undo the actions.

Recognition instead than remember:

“ Minimize the user ‘s memory burden by doing objects, actions, and options seeable. The user should non hold to retrieve information from one portion of the duologue to another. Instruction manuals for usage of the system should be seeable or easy retrievable whenever appropriate ” [ 12 ] .

As all the options like position, update, insert, delete, refresh, place are clearly provided at each and every page, the current location of the web page visited by the user will be clearly shown, the user no demand to memorize his journey in the web site. He will be provided clear instructions throughout the site for efficient accessing of informations.

Flexibility and efficiency of usage:

“ Accelerators — unobserved by the novitiate user — may frequently rush up the interaction for the adept user such that the system can provide to both inexperienced and experient users. Let users to orient frequent actions ” [ 12 ] .

I have designed my application which is flexible plenty for both the novitiate and efficient users. for the novitiate users as mentioned earlier all the buttons and clear instructions are provided through out the site. For efficient users there will be search engine provided which is a combination of several questions for case – Supply the figure of herbivores from may to july in 2003 in path a of flora type shrub, through which he can acquire the utmost information related to the species which is a good mark for this ecology of wild leopard species site.

Aesthetic andA minimalist design:

“ Dialogues should non incorporate information which is irrelevant or seldom needed. Every excess unit of information in a duologue competes with the relevant units of information and decrease their comparative visibleness ” [ 12 ] .

All the web pages i have designed and the related information Fieldss that are present in the web page are kept for carry throughing the client ‘s demands no unneeded informations is present in the site which affects the efficiency of the site. Sing the minimalistic design I have avoided the unneeded infinites between the Fieldss and assorted parts of the pages. Once the insert the informations related to the jaunt he will be shown a message that ‘successfully inserted ‘ which is relevant to the action that is performed.

Aid users recognize, diagnose, and retrieve from mistakes:

“ Mistake messages should be expressed in field linguistic communication ( no codification ) , exactly indicate the job, and constructively suggest a solution ” [ 12 ] .

The users who enters the irrelevant informations like in the ‘date ‘ field if they enter characters the system will be adumbrating the user a solution that day of the month should be in ( dd-mm-yyyy ) format so that the user will aware of his error. Similarly he enters numeral values for the name field, user will be informed that ( name should be in characters ) by this concerned individual can easy retrieve from the mistakes.

Aid and certification:

“ Even though it is better if the system can be used without certification, it may be necessary to supply aid and certification. Any such information should be easy to seek, focused on the user ‘s undertaking, list concrete stairss to be carried out, and non be excessively big ” [ 12 ] .

All the inside informations related to the applicartion right from the demand assemblage to the deployment are documented and the journey of developing this ecology of wild leopardsis documented which helps the user cognizing about the site in a better manner