Recentlyp, the utilizing of the wiki services among different educational environments have studies the utility of these applications towards the cognition representation of semantic web application into the learning E-learning. This sort of application involves the usage of digital content in the signifier of text and multimedia elements that are accessed via hyperlinks and besides via browser or hunt engines ( Christoph, L. ( 2007 ) .
However, the chief characteristics of these applications can be determined by the entree points via hyperlinks which are predetermined the contents while hunt engines are used. Wiki provides a certain hunt engines that helps to represents and recover the information contents in more official manner, this engine is different from others that used by Acrobat Reader or Google which employ basic search-by-word-matching algorithms and present end products in additive manner based on happening in the text or arranged hierarchically by popularity or frequence of being accessed. As the digital content for e-learning is immense, such random end products can be dashing are therefore non effectual in helping acquisition.
Figure 1: Wiki construction ( Accenture, L. , 2002 )
Learning and preparation contents
Wiki besides referred to as Web-based preparation and acquisition that is available anyplace, anytime. It is self-paced synergistic direction, presented over the Internet to browser-equipped scholars. The available acquisition contents in these applications ( Wikis ) helps to obtain appropriate characteristics for users and scholars that span the spectrum from desktop applications to proficient enfranchisement run intoing the demands of today ‘s life-long scholars.
Another characteristic of this application is the ontology which identified as description of constructs based on a system categorization, following the cognition attributes, and the dealingss of these properties for specific intents ( Khodra, and Widyantoro, 2007 ) . This characteristic can be presented by relevancy of topics, concreteness, and other related topics.
Different developers suggested for utilizing ontologies in stand foring constructs and cognition based on schemes, because of the ability of these algorithms for forming and sorting of information ( Khodra, and Widyantoro, 2007 ) . Wiki use a different representation manners such as agent-based ontology which leads higher utility and flexibleness of this algorithm to cover with different linguistic communications on the semantic web such as RDF, XML, and OWL ( Sridharan, B. , et al. , 2007 ) .
This characteristic provides a flexible entree for the text elements in the system pages. This dorsum to the ground of most pages contain a big figure of hypertext links to other pages. This customization of the links is a non-linear pilotage which is more “ native ” to wiki than structured/formalized pilotage strategies. However, the members of wiki could b able to make any figure of index or table-of-contents pages, with hierarchal classification or whatever signifier of organisation they like.
Wiki is easy and prosecuting based on different constructs, this application provides a simple and friendly user interface to be represents in everyone at any clip.
Wiki besides over a structural representation for the cognition in a standard browser like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.
This characteristic classify the requested elements into formal indexing which could be represented in on specific subjects or topics to acquire the information you need, when you need it. Most of the classs and the acquisition contents on the wiki physique to be divided into several Fieldss to work as just-in-time acquisition, excessively, extinguishing the demand to take programmes from get downing to stop to happen cardinal information. These classs can be used to construct in new topics to be answered by different users in the same web application.
However, this characteristic makes it flexible on users to travel and redact the page contents. Wiki pilotages can be stopped anyplace, anytime, and the following clip you sign on the system will bookmark the user activities and place.
Wiki obtain a immense categorization of the informations to be browsed and edited through its chief page. The engine is suited for computing machine based contents for re-managing and structuring into formal manner.
How Wiki Works
Wiki represented as an affectional semantic web for supplying appropriate informations retrieval engines via web pages. Furthermore, wiki based semantic web enables the engines to reorganise web beds for the intents of bing web hypertext ( Sabou, 2006 ) . It ‘s complex to place the handiness of ontologies for specific semantic web. There are many linguistic communications to nowadayss these ontologies on semantic web such as a ) RDF ( Resource Description Framework ) which is used for an extensile cognition representation, this sort of linguistic communication give an component for ontology representation over semantic web B ) OWL ( Web Ontology Language ) this linguistic communication besides used for stand foring the semantic web based on description logic ( Lopes, et al. , 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to Buitelaar, and Eigner ( 2008 ) which explained the working procedure of the wiki for recovering and stand foring the requested contents based on the indexing of the requested elements and fit it with the available databases.
Wiki hunt engine procedure for finding the utile representation based on utilizing OntoSelect hunt engine based on step of coverage, construction and connection. The work flow of this engine presents the procedure of finding the available ontologies in OntoSelect by ciphering the relevancy between these ontologies ( Buitelaar, and Eigner, 2008 ) .
However, this engine is unable to supply users with utile consequences based on their cognition which works merely on recovering the available ontologies.
Figure 2: Wiki Process ( Buitelaar, and Eigner, 2008 )
Knowledge direction procedures of Wiki
As known, wiki is a cognition direction environment for pull offing and sorting the information cross individual or multi channel question that allows the easy creative activity and redaction of any figure of interlinked web pages via a web browser utilizing a simplified markup linguistic communication or a WYSIWYG text editor.
The cognition direction procedure for this application s are typically powered by wiki package along with the developed characteristics for functioning the user ‘s demands to make collaborative wiki web sites, to power community web sites, for personal note pickings, in corporate intranets, and in knowledge direction systems.
Wiki with SECI theoretical account
The SECI theoretical account presents an of import scheme for delegating the cognition engineerings based on its characteristics occupations. Since, wiki defined as a cognition direction, its besides considered to be a portion of this theoretical account which synergized the communicating degree Fahrenheit cognition through channel questions.
Wiki represents the Internalization from the SECI theoretical account which aims to understanding expressed cognition for different ways.
This sort of theoretical accounts occurred when explicit cognition transforms to tacit and go a portion of person ‘s basic information. However, reassigning the cognition objects into different treating rhythm so back to socialisation when single portions his tacit cognition mutely differ from the original stuffs ( Gourlay, S. , 2003 ) . Figure below presents the SECI theoretical account phases in the pull offing procedure of the cognition constituents.
This theoretical account deffer other characteristics in
Classify the contents consequently
Let communicating between many users
Justify the require needs for the farther development
Adjust the deficiencies
Present appropriate solutions based job work outing technique
Report and track the new updates
Figure 3: SECI theoretical account phases ( Gourlay, S. , 2003 )
Wiki interrupting down from the bases of SECI theoretical account for accomplishing the followers:
Provide alternative ways for users to portion informations
Supply a flexible communicating cross channel question
Supply a simple representation
Customize and redact the existed stuffs based cognition
Hence, these all aids to increase the sum of cognition and the old constructs might alter. This theoretical account focuses on the chief constructs and factors for edifice cognition for any dynamic interactions that possibly obtained between tacit and expressed cognition. The coiling becomes larger in graduated table as it moves up through organisational degrees, and can trip new spirals of cognition creative activity.
However, there are different hunt engines over the wiki a strong prevue for the informations such as OntoKhoj which presents an ontology portal that crawls, classifies, ranks and hunts ontologies ( Lopez, and Uren, 2006 ) .
Furthermore, this type returns ontologies based on its graded list for a given WordNet-sense ( Scheir, et al. , 2007 ) . This engine retrieves information by mentioning to WordNet equivalent word based on the rules of OntoRank ( Scheir, et al. , 2007 ) .
Advantages and disadvantages of Wiki
The chief advantages of utilizing wiki among different users and scholars can be presented the undermentioned advantages:
Obtain for users to redact the contents
Simple and friendly interface
Flexible in browse informations
Short clip waiting for printing the information
Provide different constructions for informations representation
Manage and portion the available stuffs over multi users
Contain different type of ontology ‘s
Obtain a widens entree
Path alterations over its pages
Allow users to register
Allow users to redact their history
Allow users to pull off contents
The chief disadvantages of wiki applications in one context may be disadvantages in another. However, a failing been recognized through the utilizing of this application such as:
All users my edit the contents, which leads to weak in the significance
Hard to happen the exact inside informations
Need clip to calculate out the correct info
Open to Spam
Vandalism if non managed decently
Necessitate a high velocity connexion for sharing contents
Security degree is low due to the mutli utilizing
Hard to cover with the progress characteristics
Occupy certain acquisition demands
The utilizing of wiki in different life sectors have brought the importance of incorporating different engineerings and techniques to be applied for the purpose of betterment. Meanwhile, wikis have become of import information portals. Nevertheless, research in wiki handiness is an frequently ignored subject. Different tools can be used to better the meaningful of stand foring the information elements with certain handiness restrictions but besides do offer new ways and constructs to better handiness. Such as Scheir, et Al. ( 2007 ) that described a hunt engine called Swoogle as a sycophant and indexer of semantic web paperss. This type illustrates the rules of supplying some prosodies for ranking ontologies based on OntoRank rules. OntoSelect has been explained by Lopez, and Uren ( 2006 ) as the first ontology libraries which used to lucubrate the alterations over semantic web and crawls for other new ontologies with different rules. Furthermore, OntoSelect ontology can be browsed by ontology utilizing more than one keywords or certain keywords and categories. In drumhead, the current hunt engines and techniques that are in usage for compete to back up general browse and hunt demands without taking into history the user ‘s thought schemes in recovering the questions and are therefore non appropriate for e-learning intents.
Hence its proposed to better the meaningfulness of the hunt consequences have focused on stipulating the context of the hunt as offered by Yahoo, and the development of the semantic web as in wiki. These methods improve the hunt consequences but need farther polishs to be genuinely effectual in the e-learning environment. Ontology is presented by different types of linguistic communication such as RDF, XML, and OWL engineerings for structuring information following the semantic web construction. This representation will follow subject-specific instruction scheme formats in showing the constructs or the consequences of the enquiries.