In 2005, amalgamations and acquisitions represented more than $ 2.300 billion worldwide of which more than the half was carried out in Europe. However, these last old ages under the crisis consequence and an unstable economic environment, these mechanisms were divided by two ( www.challenges.fr, 2009 ) . Many surveies established that these mergers-acquisitions are far from being all successes because they do non ever enable companies to increase their public presentations and make value for their stockholders in one instance out of two ( www.institute-entreprise.fr, 2003 ) . Therefore, although many fiscal considerations are taken into history to all stages of the amalgamation procedure, it is today established that the key of their long-run success is in the patterns and human resource ( HR ) direction ( Porteres, 2006, pp.44 ) . Indeed, an entirely fiscal attack, such as it existed in the 1960ss, constitutes from now, a narrow vision of what is an operation of an international mergers-acquisitions ( Sargis Roussel, 2004 ) . The success of these operations depends strongly on the realisation of a human synergism, in add-on to a fiscal synergism ( Larsson & A ; Finkelstein, 1999, pp.1 ) . However, certain undertaking leaders seem still immune to include this map from the beginning of the procedure. Therefore, the HR inquiry remains at the bosom of the argument ( Edwards & A ; Rees, 2006 ) .
In a first portion, we will see why the HR direction is really frequently neglected in instance of amalgamations and acquisitions. Then, in a 2nd portion, we will look at how the human resource direction map helps companies to go more effectual and better their public presentation within such strategic ventures.
In the effervescence of amalgamations and acquisitions, the HR map is lost between all the fiscal, economic and commercial precedences. Harmonizing to a study, about two 3rd of dialogues being held in the mergers-acquisitions model, do non connote the HR section which nevertheless in bulk of instances, is good at negociating ( Antila, 2006, pp.1004 ) . The HR map like the other maps of support have for a long clip suffered from holding a limited function and accordingly non being able to demo their existent added-value. HR directors regret non being adequate taken into consideration at the first phase of the international mergers-acquisitions procedure and ousted of strategic determinations ( Rees & A ; Edwards, 2009 ) .
Assorted obstructions are likely to promote the board of managers non to attach to much importance to human and organizational factors. Indeed, people in charge of mergers-acquisitions frequently adopt a basically rational and proficient attack which leaves a small topographic point to ambiguity inherent to the human factors ( Edwards & A ; Rees, 2006 ) .
Therefore, societal factors do non hold the same importance for undertaking leaders or executives and HR directors. Even in houses which attach a high importance to the societal dimension, leaders do non do it a precedence in the amalgamations and acquisitions direction ( Porteres, 2006, pp.20 ) . For the board of managers, a successful amalgamation is chiefly a success on strategic and fiscal program. Indeed, determination shapers are excessively much focused on economic costs and charges to prehend and take into account inquiries of human being, societies or civilizations ( Stahl et al. , 2004 ) .
Furthermore, the absence of taking into history the human side upriver frequently comes with the fact that amalgamation operations are decided within central offices which can be highly far geographically ( New-York and Tokyo ) , culturally ( divergent civilizations from one state to another ) , socially or with a different statute law ( Porteres, 2006, pp.6 ) .
Then, whether the HR director is seldom involved in the dialogue procedure, this is besides due to a deficiency of acknowledgment and look, and because mergers-acquisitions are considered as a political procedure, where the HR map has non its topographic point ( Edwards & A ; Rees, 2006 ) . The other grounds for their low deduction could be explained by the fact that undertaking leaders do non hold adequate clip because their deadlines are really short or merely because of their deficiency of experience they do non see or even believe of the HR issues ( Antila, 2006, pp.1009 ) .
In fact, if the HR direction does non take topographic point precisely at the beginning, when the economic and fiscal undertaking is planing, the existent inquiry is to cognize if it will take topographic point sufficiently early to be truly taken into history in the procedure ( Aguilera & A ; Dencker, 2004, pp.1356 ) . Many mergers-acquisitions encounter some troubles because the executive squad, wholly focused on the operation, did non believe plenty about the post-merger direction.
Conversely, the best patterns are those where leaders while concluding finance and scheme, integrate and expect the HR direction dimension within mergers-acquisitions. It had been proved that the engagement of HR in the amalgamations and acquisitions procedure has a direct impact on its success ( Larsson & A ; Finkelstein, 1999 ) . The amalgamation between Daimler Benz and Chrysler ( 1998 ) is a typical illustration of a really interesting connexion on the fiscal program but where the HR section was wholly absent of determinations. Consequently, it turned out to be a entire failure for different grounds such as direction, cultural and organisation mutual exclusivenesss ( Dowling et al. , 2008 ) .
Therefore, HR directors have today an of import undertaking which is to remember their higher-ups and the other sections that employees are every bit important as the turnover.
We will see in the following subdivision in what the HR section can be a existent plus and a factor of public presentation in instance of amalgamations and acquisitions.
The HR map, every bit good as the other maps within the company, is confronted with an progressively strong demand today: the one of lending more to the house public presentation, particularly in instance of amalgamations and acquisitions ( Aguilera & A ; Dencker, 2004 ) .
The execution of these operations is slippery to recognize because it takes topographic point in a tense atmosphere where employees worry about their single and corporate hereafter ( Larsson & A ; Finkelstein, 1999, pp.6 ) . Besides, amalgamations and acquisitions are frequently perceived as the countenance of a bad direction which encourages the phantom of relation “ victors and also-rans ” ( Schweiger et al. , 2002, pp.60 ) .
Schuler and Jackson ( 2001 ) show that it is possible to affect the HR director to each measure of the amalgamation procedure ( pre-merger/due diligence, amalgamation and post-merger ) . Indeed, the opportunity of success can be singularly increased thanks to a professional squad of HR direction. During that period, the HR director ‘s function can be divided into four parts as a strategic spouse, an administrative expert, an employee title-holder and a alteration agent ( Antila, 2006, pp.1015 ) . It appears that all his missions are perfectly indispensable to unite the two entities and better the new house public presentation.
First of all, one of the chief duties of a HR director is to explicate the grounds of such operation thanks to a wide circulation of information ( Stahl et al. , 2004 ) . It is of import that employees have a good overall apprehension of the procedure. However, this communicating should non halt at the initial stage ; it has to be ubiquitous throughout the whole procedure ( Porteres, 2006, pp.28 ) . When the communicating is managed with effectivity, it can hold really good reverberations on the staff ( www.institute-entreprise.fr, 2003 ) . On the reverse, an deficient communicating can bring forth confusions, a autumn of the productiveness and decline the feeling of uncertainness ( Sergis Roussel, 2004, pp.94 ) .
Then, Stahl et Al. ( 2004 ) explain that it turns out to be cardinal to retain and develop the cardinal employees. Harmonizing to Schuler and Jackson ( 2001 ) , that would enable companies to accomplish their ends of public presentation on the one manus during the passage stage and on the other manus the development of a competitory advantage in the long tally associated with the control of specific cognition.
The HR section is besides in charge of puting up new ways of working which should let in peculiar the harmonisation of patterns, the flexibleness and the HR development in a long-run position ( Porteres, 2006, pp.43 ) . The HR director ‘s mission is here to develop the new civilization and common values of the new concern ( Stahl et al. , 2004 ) . The clarity of the aims, the simpleness of the construction and the squads ‘ concomitant contribute perceptibly to avoid hazards of struggles related to the intercultural issues. Indeed, when two entities decide to unify, they put face to confront someway two corporate civilizations which are likely divergent ( Schweiger et al. , 2002, pp.56 ) . The cultural spread hazards to go a existent menace. It is so necessary to pull off this cultural daze to do a true cultural confederation ( www.institute-entreprise.fr, 2003 ) .
In this new paragraph, we are traveling to see that taking attention of the good coherence and following the development of the societal clime are two finding factors of the economic success of a amalgamation. It is necessary to put in a positive co-operation which does non disfavor any members of the connection entities. The HR director has to keep a sufficient degree of motive so that the employees have pleasance to work and remain loyal to their company ( Sargis Roussel, 2004, pp.89 ) . Certain operational side of the HR map, such as the prognosis, the choice of executives, the publicity and development of the forces, every bit good as the system of preparation, are besides important for the good procedure of integrating ( Antila, 2006, pp.1007 ) . The end of the HR is to run into the house and employees ‘ outlooks.
The HR director has every bit good a important function to play during the mergers-acquisitions in order to decide or avoid HR issues. Indeed, the loss of cardinal endowment, the loss of strategic competencies or the societal clime debasement would ensue in demotivation, tensenesss, internal struggles or a rise of absenteeism. All these troubles could bring forth a autumn of the public presentation ( Schweiger et al. , 2002 ) . That is why, the HR director ‘s deduction is indispensable for the lastingness and the success of the concern.
In add-on, the HR director during the whole procedure can be considered as an agent of alteration ( Antila, 2006 ) . On the one manus, mergers-acquisitions are traveling to prosecute assorted alterations refering the organizational construction ( creative activity of new topographic points or phantom of new constructs of production ) . On the other manus, functions of each one are traveling to be redefined and the power and zone of influence are traveling to alter. The HR director has to reassign those alterations in a good manner in order to better the end product, effectivity and dynamism of the company ( www.institute-entreprise.fr, 2003 ) . For case, in the Danone instance, the HR section involves the trade brotherhoods and employees in the restructuration. Thankss to their particular methods, there are no consecutive layoffs. At the terminal of twelvemonth one, the economic consequences are at that place. For directors who led the operation, the success is due chiefly to the HR function in the procedure of alteration ( Porteres, 2006, pp.66 ) .
Finally the last phase consists in solidifying and measuring the new entity created ( Antila, 2006, pp.1008 ) . The HR ‘ bets are to consolidate the executive squad and pull off the job of leading which could do struggles. It is besides necessary to measure the new emergent civilization and to do certain that everyone feels sufficiently at easiness with these new values promoted.
The HR director is progressively going a strategic spouse involved in all the great motion of the corporate general policy ( Aguilera & A ; Dencker, 2004, pp.1353 ) . He is the 1 who enlightens the board of managers on the organizational alterations and the corporate civilization. This director who had traditionally a function of support has to play presents a portion much more proactive by foregrounding the importance of the human capital and by act uponing the planetary scheme ( Antila, 2006 ) .
A suited direction of the HR enables to make optimum and indispensible conditions for the realisation of synergisms ( Larsson & A ; Finkelstein, 1999 ) . Consequently, the HR section seems perfectly critical within the mergers-acquisitions procedure with the aims to better the public presentation and the success of the company.
To reason, it is of import to indicate out the cardinal function of the HR map in instance of amalgamations and acquisitions insofar as on the one manus, it anticipates the human issues which will necessarily happen and on the other manus it devotes attempt and energy to work out these jobs the quickest as possible before they become a beginning of rejection ( Larsson & A ; Finkelstein, 1999 ) . Although it is frequently absent from determinations doing, this map appears today as a usher for the company development and he is now challenged to play a function of “ overcrossing ” between the assorted degrees of the organisation ( Antila, 2006 ) . Besides, it can be used as an agent of alteration if it is consistent with the corporate civilization. The HR director should non go forth the control of the procedure to the moneymans, specializers in direction or production because the societal factors are indispensable to the success of a merger-acquisition. Indeed, unifying two houses does non merely dwell in adding turnovers and market portions but besides fall ining people, working methods and civilizations ( Sargis Roussel, 2004 ) . It is merely at that status that the operation can be originative of value at the same clip for the company, employees and stockholders.