Purpose – The intent of this paper is to supply the reader with a better apprehension of scheme utilizing Nokia as an illustration. It besides examines how scheme at Nokia has evolved over the last decennary. In kernel, it examines the factors that caused this development procedure to take topographic point.
Design/methodology/approach – Assorted definitions of scheme are discussed and applied to Nokia. Additionally, a strategic analysis in the signifier of SWOT and Porter ‘s five forces are used to explicate the internal capablenesss and resourcefulness nowadays within Nokia and the issues present in the external micro-environment are examined.
Findingss – It is shown that Nokia has been losing market portion recently as a consequence of new rivals such as Apple presenting radical merchandises such as the iPhone to the nomadic phone market. The debut of the iPhone saw the outgrowth of touch screen devices used by the mainstream populace as opposed to the tradition button sized devices that Nokia used to rule.
Keywords Strategy, Strategic Analysis, SWOT Analysis, Porters five forces, Nokia, Apple
Paper type Journal
This paper addresses the cardinal subject of scheme in relation to Nokia – the largest nomadic phone shaper in the universe and the development of its scheme over the past decennary.
The undermentioned issues will be considered:
What is scheme is and why is it of import? Nokia as an administration is big in size ; it employs 123,000+ employees bring forthing 52 billion Euros in gross, as of 2009 ( Nokia.co.uk ) . Intelligibly, the company is nil less than a national establishment in Finland because of its part to the national economic system. So would it be possible for a company of this size and relevancy to run without a scheme?
In a quickly turning communications industry which is non short of large names, Nokia has softly managed to construct a market portion and prolong its place as a market leader for many old ages. How was this possible? Was it knowing or did Nokia acquire to its current place by opportunity?
Porter ( 1996, p.62 ) states that a company can surpass challengers merely if it can set up a difference that it can continue. It must present greater value to clients or make comparable value at a lower cost, or make both. Nokia was foremost amongst its coevalss in the yesteryear in this respect. For illustration, the company built a planetary repute for its merchandises battery life, customer-friendly characteristics and quality ; but, what about the present? The external environment is invariably altering.
Unfortunately, station 2004, rivals have been able to supply better value to clients prehending the competitory advantage Nokia one time held. Despite its market place prominence, Nokia is seeing itself viing with both old rivals ( such as Motorola ) and new rivals ( such as Apple and Google ) , all of whom have launched new phones and phone services in the past few old ages. Additionally, Nokia today, lacks the exhilaration that some of its newer challengers have brought to the market. While clients are merely excessively eager to lap up iPhones and Blackberrys, Nokia ‘s conventional designs and characteristics have fallen short of client outlooks.
This shows the impact that the external environment is capable of bring downing on an organisation regardless of repute or size. Surely Nokia had failed to anticipate the menaces present in its external environment, else it would n’t hold lost market portion to rivals. When challenged with such a state of affairs, how a company responds is important. Successful rejoinders though depend on the strategic design of the company. Does a company stick to its current scheme or does it accommodate to counter the menaces posed by its external environment?
To develop the treatment farther, the undermentioned subdivision Begins by turn toing the definition of scheme.
What is scheme?
Porter ( 1996, p.64 ) defines the kernel of scheme as “ taking to execute activities otherwise than challengers do. ”
Alternatively, a more elaborate definition of scheme is provided by Johnson and Scholes ( 2002, p.10 ) , as follows:
“ Scheme is the way and range of an organisation over the longer-term: which achieves advantage for the organisation through its constellation of resources within a ambitious environment, to run into the demands of markets and to carry through stakeholder outlooks. ”
The above definition can be broken down into its assorted constituents and be applied to Nokia in the undermentioned context:
Where is Nokia seeking to acquire to in the long-run ( way ) ?
Which markets should Nokia vie in and what sort of activities are involved in such markets? ( markets ; range )
How can Nokia execute better than the competition in those markets? ( advantage ) ?
What resources ( accomplishments, assets, finance ) are required in order to be able to vie? ( resources ) ?
What external, environmental factors affect Nokia ‘s ability to vie? ( environment ) ?
What are the values and outlooks of those who have power in and around Nokia? ( stakeholders )
Nokia evolved from a pudding stone embracing several industries to a company today that is regarded as the largest nomadic phone maker in the universe. Its success can non be attributed entirely or chiefly to neither luck nor can its success be attributed to overpoweringly superior resources. Alternatively, the company ‘s ability to acknowledge chances when they appeared and to hold the lucidity of way and flexibleness necessary to work chances has seen it carry through what it has today.
How can it non be so? With the prostration of the USSR in 1990, Nokia suffered huge force per unit area to last in so many different countries that it one time operated within the pudding stone. Based on new market chances that the company predicted in the nomadic phone industry combined with its internal strengths – advanced engineering on nomadic phone sector ( Nokia had the universe ‘s first international cellular Mobile telephone web and was the first manufacturer of manus portable phones ) , Nokia eventually decided to concentrate on the nomadic phone industry. Soon Nokia achieved success and it became the largest Mobile phone company in the universe ( Nokia.co.uk ) . Without the external menaces, the new market chances and its internal strengths on the nomadic phone sector, Nokia may hold non entered the nomadic phone industry at all. Therefore, both internal and external factors influenced Nokia ‘s strategic pick at the same time. As Porter ( 1985 ) pointed out, the house can clearly better or gnaw its place within industry through its pick of scheme. The large success Nokia rapidly achieved in the nomadic phone industry justified that the company ‘s pick was right. This is demonstrated in a theoretical diagram below:
Objective assessment of resources
Profound apprehension of the competitory environment
Long-term, simple and agreed aims
Figure 1 – Common elements in successful schemes Beginning: Grant ( 2005 )
Get downing point for Strategy
On their ain, neither the end of net income ( or stockholder value ) maximization nor the values which guide a company ‘s behaviour, play much of a function in specifying its scheme. The get downing point for scheme is some underlying thought of why the concern exists. Jim Collins and Jerry Porras argue that nucleus values must be complimented by nucleus intent – the organisations most cardinal ground for being ( Grant, 2005, p.60 ) .
Nokia – Vision
Nokia envisions a universe where linking people to what affairs, empowers them to do the most of every minute. Their purpose is to therefore empower everyone to portion and do the most of their life by offering resistless personal experiences ( Nokia.co.uk ) .
Nokia ‘s vision of linking people and authorising them to do the most of every minute is what drives the company ‘s scheme and its determinations.
Otherwise known as ‘external environmental analysis, strategic analysis is about looking at what is go oning outside the administration now and in the hereafter. The focal point is external because factors outside the administration have a powerful influence on it ( NCVO, 2010 ) .
Why is strategic analysis of import?
Nokia is runing in a really fast paced environment where promotions in engineering consequence in invention of new merchandises and the death of others. In such an environment, it is of import to expect what might go on, how likely it is to go on and fix for something go oning in any contingency.
This will take to clearer and more relevant ends, better quality determinations, and a more unafraid hereafter as the company is better prepared for what will go on, as seen below:
The Industry Environment
Goals and values
Resources & A ; capablenesss
Structure & A ; systems
Figure 2 – Scheme as a nexus between the house and its environment Beginning: Grant ( 2005 )
When Apple introduced its first touch screen iPhone in 2007, the nomadic phone industry was bereft of such a merchandise. Nokia ‘s environmental analysis or for that affair the remainder of the rivals apart from Apple had n’t anticipated the demand that such a merchandise would make in the market. As a consequence, Apple was able to steal market portion from established makers such as Nokia.
But the fact that Nokia was actively following events in the external environment meant that it was able to react to Apple ‘s menace of the iPhone by presenting its really ain touch screen device. Nokia, has since bit by bit shifted from a button based interface to a touch screen one for the bulk of its merchandises. By making so, it has managed to prolong its market portion and drive the promotions of its fellow rivals who are all contending to claw back lost market portion to new rivals such as Apple and HTC.
An initial demand of the procedure of any strategic analysis is the assessment and analysis of the status in which an administration presently finds itself ( Morden, 2007 ) . This is explored in the signifier of a SWOT analysis discussed over the following page.
Importance of SWOT
A SWOT analysis is of import, as it enables Nokia to entree the internal strengths upon which it can establish it pick of schemes ; and thereby better service its clients ; or instead gain competitory advantage in the nomadic phone market. It addresses of import issues such as – Does it hold internal failings which may put it at a disadvantage, and which it may hold to rectify before it can do determinations on its pick of scheme?
SWOT Analysis ( see Appendix 1 for drumhead diagram )
Back in 1999 Nokia was the unchallenged market leader in the quickly turning concern of linking people on the move. It had the highest market value of any European company and a repute for being the coolest telecoms company in the universe.
Nokia had succeeded in going the market leader by following a scheme of incremental invention. It is invariably believing about the hereafter and is good known for its high degree of investings in R & A ; D ( Mobcon, 2010 ) .
Besides when it comes to universe ‘s best design pattern, Nokia ticked all the right boxes. Collaboration was at the nucleus of its attack to merchandise design. For illustration, Nokia sends design squads out to work with the locals to detect new thoughts for nomadic devices that would alter the manner people interact in the emerging markets ( Mobcon, 2010 ) .
Nokia have besides systematically been victors in the race to convey advanced new characteristics like web browser, MMS and picture naming to the market. The consequence of all this energy and investing are land interrupting constructs, unchallenged market leading and an extended merchandise scope that has earned Nokia the label of – the General Motors of the Mobile Phone World ( Mobcon, 2010 ) .
For more than a decennary executives at Nokia have focused on including employees in determining the company ‘s fate in two cardinal ways. First, Nokia ‘s scheme creative activity has evolved into a procedure in which, every six months, over 400 people across the company pool their cognition and experience in edifice what is termed a ‘strategic route map ‘ for the company. Second, Nokia often restructures its operations through the usage of faculties ( groups and communities of employees ) . These faculties are reconfigured as needed to run into the altering demands of the concern. Both of these operational attacks have resulted in what Nokia executives have termed ‘deep engagement ‘ in its strategic development ( Gratton and Casse, 2010 ) .
Scheme at Nokia is non a top-down attack ; alternatively, the accent is on a widely distributed engagement. In 2004, Nokia implemented a cardinal organizational alteration which was made to the full effectual within one hebdomad and involved about 100 people presuming new occupations. The subject, doctrine and mentality of reconfiguration through standardization and shared platforms meant that Nokia was able to skillfully and quickly reconfigure its human resources to run into ambitious client demands. This attack made the lines of communicating at Nokia remarkably direct, which meant that persons could drive things frontward ( Gratton and Casse, 2010 ) .
Market leaders historically have been ill-famed for their complacence. Examples abound in the planetary market. Sony, the leader in nomadic music with its Walkman lost the market to Apple ‘s iPod. General Motors and Ford – two of the biggest auto companies in the universe, easy and steadily lost their place to Toyota. Dell, one time the leader in personal computing machines, lost the market to a resurgent HP and the emerging Lenovo ( Roll, 2010 ) .
All these market leaders rested on their past accomplishments while non puting in invention, new engineerings and new avenues to make trade name experiences. The concern theoretical accounts and the trade name ideals behind their former success bit by bit became so entrenched that they finally turned around to go strategic liabilities instead than strategic assets ( Roll, 2010 ) .
So it is with Nokia. Despite its reputable battery life, customer-friendly characteristics and quality, it lacked the exhilaration that some of its newer rivals brought to the market. Nokia followed a scheme of incremental invention. Although such a scheme may hold offered short-run efficiencies and cost nest eggs, the long-run effects have been black.
It will be difficult for anyone to instantly call a Nokia invention that has shaken the planetary nomadic phone market. In contrast, Motorola introduced the extremely successful RAZR phone line ; Apple introduced the enormously popular iPhone and RIM the Blackberry phenomena ( Roll, 2010 ) .
Another failing of Nokia is being prepared to join forces more with nomadic operators who now have a turning desire to hold French telephones that reflect their ain image, something which these operators feel Nokia had n’t been demoing much enthusiasm for.
Budden and Brown ( 2005, p.4 ) say: “ When Vodafone launched Vodafone Live! , its informations services platform in 2002, it surprised the industry by taking Sharp, so a virtually unknown nomadic trade name in Europe, as the flagship French telephone. Peoples at Vodafone say Sharp were more willing to yield to Vodafone ‘s demands to bring forth a phone meeting its specific demands. The scheme worked, with the Sharp phone going a top-selling French telephone in Europe in 2004. ” A lesson that Nokia is surely non excessively chesty to larn and a greater willingness for co-operation in this tailoring of demands have already been signaled.
Such a conservative scheme has doubtless hit Nokia really hard.Nokia has had to cut phone monetary values, a scheme that has the obvious knock-on consequence on net income borders. Some of this will be farther discussed in the Porters Fiver Forces analysis.
The worldwide market for converged nomadic devices ( besides normally referred to as smartphones ) is expected to turn 55.4 % this twelvemonth compared to 2009 amid greater-than-expected demand for the do-it-all devices. This is 10 % higher than the old prognosis from the International Data Corporation ( IDC ) . The mentality for 2011 is besides really strong. Despite uncertainness about the economic system, the smartphone market is expected to increase 24.5 % in 2011. However, smartphone growing will worsen increasingly over the class of IDC ‘s five-year prognosis period. In 2014, for illustration, the market is expected to lift by merely 13.6 % . Furthermore, the overall phone market is turning faster than anticipated excessively – in 2010, the market should turn by 14.1 % , 1.5 % higher than initial estimations ( Businesswire.com ) .
All of this suggests the voluminous chances on offer for nomadic phone companies such as Nokia.
Nokia has managed to spread out its planetary place, particularly in the high-growth big emerging markets – including China, India, Brazil and Indonesia. In a planetary competition, it would be a fatal error to believe of these markets as second-tier. Until the 1980s, the lead clients in the most advanced industries were still in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. The G-7 states dominated negotiations on international economic sciences. And what was good for California was good for the universe. Today, the lead clients are progressively in the rising universe. The G-7 has been replaced by the G-20. Winning globally, requires leading in advanced and emergent states ( Steinbock, 2010 ) .
A decennary after making concern the Nokia manner, the company ‘s market value has fallen dramatically. Nokia ‘s decennary long investing in R & A ; D and ongoing committedness to ‘incremental invention ‘ has delivered an 80 % loss in stockholder value. The reply of class is the iPhone. In three short old ages Apple has disrupted Nokia ‘s market and redefined its hereafter.
Ironically, back in 1997 when Nokia ‘s star was on its meteorologic rise ; Apple was arguably on its articulatio genuss. It took a $ 150 Million investing from Microsoft and the return of Steve Jobs to foster the seeds that have later disrupted Nokia ‘s market laterality ( Mobcon, 2010 ) . The remainder as they say is history. The iPhone has singlehandedly revolutionized the telecommunications industry. Apple ‘s radical iPod, iPad and iPhone platforms are nil more than clean electronic canvases that allow the client to plan their ain nomadic digital life manner. The iPhone, merely like the original Apple Macintosh, is an empty shell waiting to be populated by its proprietor.
Here so is the elusive difference between the market that Nokia dominated and the market Nokia now finds itself runing in. In Nokia ‘s universe there is a broad scope of Mobile Phones of different forms, colourss and characteristics for you to take from. Each one allowed you to show your personality. It is like taking between an SUV, Sedan, Convertible or Sports auto – That ‘s why the original Nokia scheme was to becomeA the GM of the nomadic phone industry ( Mobcon, 2010 ) .
In an iPhone universe there is merely one ( really obviously ) device and it ‘s what you install on it that makes it cool.
Other makers ( such as HTC and Samsung ) and technological giants ( such as Google and Microsoft ) have besides developed new merchandises and platforms that have jointly stolen the spotlight off Nokia.
Now we will look at the Porters Five Forces in relation to Nokia. The consequences of the SWOT can so be applied to the following theoretical account to find a strategic pick for Nokia.
Why is Porters Five Forces of import to Nokia? ( See Appendix 2 for drumhead diagram )
Hill and Jones, ( 2008 ) province that industry boundaries may alter over clip as client demands or new engineerings emerge that enable companies in hitherto unrelated industries to fulfill established client demands in new ways. This has what has happened to the nomadic telecommunications industry:
See for case the convergence that is presently taking topographic point between the computing machine industry and the telecommunications industry – this is a all right illustration of how technological alterations can change industry boundaries ; Historically, the telecommunications equipment industry has been considered a distinguishable entity from the computing machine hardware industry. However, as telecommunications equipment has moved from traditional parallel to digital engineering, so have telecommunications equipment, which has progressively come to resemble computing machines. The consequence is that the boundaries between these industries are film overing. A digital radio phone, for illustration, is nil more than a little handheld computing machine with a wireless connexion, and little hand-held computing machines frequently now come with radio capablenesss, transforming them into phones. Therefore, Nokia and Motorola who manufacture wireless phones are now happening themselves viing straight with computing machine companies such as Apple and Microsoft.
Porter ( 1996 ) suggests that industry choice and analysis is a critical constituent of strategic planning. He besides referred to these forces as the microenvironment so as to contrast it with the more general term, macro-environment. They consist of those forces near to an administration that affect its ability to function its clients and do a net income. A alteration in any of the forces usually requires a company to re-assess the market place, as will be seen in the instance of Nokia, below.
Menace of entry
The nomadic telecommunications industry is extremely capital intensive and therefore the biggest barrier to entry is entree to finance. To cover high costs ( such as R & A ; D ) , serious rivals typically require a batch of hard currency. When capital markets are generous, the menace of competitory entrants escalates. When funding chances are less readily available, the gait of entry slows. It is besides of import to retrieve that solid operating accomplishments and direction experience ( illustration: Steve Jobs – Apple Inc. ) is reasonably scarce, doing entry even more hard.
The past few old ages have seen Apple, Google and HTC enter the nomadic telecommunications market. Their entry into the turning nomadic market was a natural patterned advance and was made possible due to their sheer size and market presence. In kernel, the nomadic market was an extension of the services they already offered.
As the nomadic market is now saturated with a batch of established technological trade names, it is extremely improbable any new participants would be attracted into this industry. The sheer presence of the large trade names and the intense competition would be sufficient to drive away any new possible entrants.
Rivalry amongst bing rivals
Rivalry amongst bing rivals is ferocious. The rivals in this industry include heavyweight participants such as Samsung, Sony Ericsson, RIM ( BlackBerry ) , LG, HTC and many more. The undermentioned diagram over the following page looks at these companies and their size in footings of units sold and the market portion they command. This would give the reader an disposition as to the ferocious competition that is prevailing in this industry.
Worldwide Mobile Terminal Gross saless to End Users in 1Q10 ( Thousands of Units )
A Unit of measurements
1Q10 Market Share ( % )
A Unit of measurements
1Q09 Market Share ( % )
Figure 3 Gartner ( 2010 )
From this diagram it can be gleaned that Nokia ‘s nomadic phone gross revenues to stop users reached 110.1 million units in its first one-fourth, in 2010 – a 1.2 per cent diminution in market portion year-on-year. Conversely Gartner ( 2010 ) reported other makers who did reasonably good:
Samsung was one of the five sellers in the top10 sellers ranking to turn its market portion, which increased by 1.5 per centum points year-on-year.
RIM ‘s nomadic phone gross revenues reached 10.6 million units in the first one-fourth of 2010, a 45.9 per cent addition year-on-year. RIM is doing its introduction into the top five worldwide Mobile French telephone makers ranking.
The first one-fourth of 2010 was Apple ‘s strongest one-fourth yet, which placed the company in the No. 7 place with a 112.2 per cent addition in nomadic devices gross revenues.
This highlights the intense competition that is rampant in the nomadic phone industry and it besides underscores the fact that a per centum addition by one company in market portion is a loss for its challenger.
Menace of replacement merchandises
Mobile phones are acquiring progressively popular by the twenty-four hours that it is difficult to gestate replacements such as the likes of land lines or fixed telecommunication phones, tablets and other fancy appliances such as wrist watch phones would present any important menace.
Dickering power of purchasers
In the French telephone market, terminal users are non known to straight buy French telephones from the maker, i.e. Nokia, alternatively they purchase them from the service suppliers such as Vodafone although clients do hold the option to pre-order and purchase French telephones from Nokia straight via channels such as the Nokia retail shop in the high street or online. The dickering power of purchasers in this instance would be low as the bulk of them would be doing undistinguished purchases such as purchasing merely one or two French telephones.
On the other manus, Nokia ‘s primary purchasers would be the web operators who purchase Nokia ‘s nomadic phones on a larger graduated table. Depending on the size of the operator, for case – Vodafone, the universe ‘s biggest web operator – could hold more of a bargaining power in comparing to the first illustration above as they would be given to do purchases in a larger graduated table. It can be argued nevertheless that the webs purchasing power could be medium. This is because if a web operator decides non to buy a popular French telephone from Nokia, loyal Nokia clients could travel webs to a different operator to procure that French telephone.
Dickering power of Suppliers
As Nokia is the biggest nomadic phone maker in the universe, they most likely buy their natural stuffs in majority. Thus they are able to command big economic systems of graduated table. But due to the intense competition in this industry and the presence of several rivals, big providers can afford to command medium dickering power. This is because if one nomadic maker refuses them, it is improbable for the provider to travel out of concern due to the many large sized constituted makers already present. Besides the providers in this industry be given to be specialist in nature.
SWOT and Five Forces sum-up
Based on the above analysis, it is clear that Nokia has the possible to stay a major presence in the planetary nomadic phone industry in the coming old ages. The external nomadic phone market environment is dynamic ; Nokia has lost its market portion due to the misunderstanding of the market tendencies and client demands. In peculiar it was slow to respond to Apple ‘s iPhone. But the quickly turning nomadic market besides brings many large potency chances for Nokia, such as the market in developing states, customized concern user Mobile phones and so on. Furthermore, the most of import of Nokia ‘s internal strengths, such as the advanced engineering, advanced merchandises, economic systems of graduated table, could jointly allow it excel the rivals and solidify its market leader place. Furthermore, Nokia can profit further from its strong trade name name and company image. The autumn in market portion, between 2004 to 2010 should remind Nokia of the demand to get the better of its complacence and haughtiness and to be more sensitive to client demands.
Planned and emergent attacks
Some argue that scheme is calculated and should be intentionally planned and executed. Directors are required to foretell the hereafter and to orchestrate programs to prosecute an intended strategic consequence ( De Wit and Meyer, 2004 & A ; Harrison, 2005 ) . In kernel, this attack tends to underscore long-run planning designed to accomplish a ‘fit ‘ between an administration ‘s scheme and its environment ( Ansoff, 1965 ; Andrews, 1987 ) . However, to a great extent structured planning is clearly inappropriate in times of rapid and disruptive alteration. In add-on, it is apparent that, in pattern, many schemes merely emerge from a watercourse of determinations, which is better suited to dynamic and hypercompetitive environments ( De Wit and Meyer, 2004 & A ; Harrison, 2005 ) . Thus, some argued that administrations that limit themselves to moving on the footing of what is already known or understood will non be sufficiently advanced to make a sustainable competitory advantage ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) .
However, in pattern, planning and emergent attacks are both utile – they should non be seen as independent or reciprocally sole ( Johnson el al, 2005 ) . A house can, but non to the full, commit to detailed and coordinated long-run programs, while, at the same time adapt itself flexibly and opportunistically to blossoming fortunes ( De Wit and Meyer, 2004 ) . That is, both planned and emergent attacks are necessary, and if an administration is to win, directors need to seek to strike the best possible balance between the two.
Nokia had planned to develop the high-end Mobile phone and invested to a great extent on its advanced merchandises ; meanwhile, the company besides, as planned, underwent an internal re-organisation taking for the hereafter sustainable growing. However, during 2003-2004, Nokia suffered a autumn in the nomadic phone market. Since the company realised that the market was non yet ready for this engineering and operating system ; the company emergently adjusted its scheme once more, and designed new theoretical accounts of phones to run into the clients ‘ demands ; meanwhile, the company followed the market tendencies and cut the monetary value of phones. Soon the company recaptured the loss in its market portion merely to lose it once more a few old ages subsequently in 2007, with the outgrowth of the iPhone. In add-on, the company bit by bit changed its base and started to collaborate with the nomadic web operators. These emergent scheme alterations showed that Nokia no longer lodge to its old planned schemes, while at the same time accommodating to some emergent schemes in order to run into the client demands and dynamic concern environment. In point of fact, faced with the chance of industry impregnation and increased international competition in the nomadic industry, Nokia will hold more strategic picks to do. In kernel, Nokia will necessitate to explicate more emergent and planned schemes in order to react to the dynamic planetary market based on different concern environments and state of affairs.
Bibliography and Mentions
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Dated package platform ( Symbian ) compared to innovative and exciting package provided by challengers.
Market Leader in the nomadic industry.
Strong trade name name
Decentralised company construction.
Economies of Scale
New engineerings and package platforms introduced by challengers ( eg. Apple ‘s Io, Google ‘s Android )
Emergent markets such as the BRIC economic system states and America.
Turning market for smart-phones.