Occupational Stress In Hospitality Sector Management Essay

Marina Bay Sands Hotel and Casino of Singapore is Singapore ‘s first to the full integrated resort being developed by one of the universe ‘s largest gaming companies, Las Vegas Sands. The organisation will be making out to a wide graduated table of about 10,400 bing and displaced workers with different backgrounds and demands, therefore, the client should acknowledge that emphasis can be a major menace to the wellness of workers, and a hinderance to its success. The cordial reception surrender rate in Singapore is the highest amongst other industries as shown in Table 1.3. Khatri et Al. ( 2009 ) further mentioned that Singapore service industry turnover rates are among the highest in Asia and most frequently, occupational emphasis is one of the chief grounds to it.

However, many research workers mentioned that work-life balance scheme can forestall emphasis and increase benefits for the work force. Work-life balance scheme is a comparatively new human resource construct that has received increasing degrees of involvement in recent old ages ; nevertheless, Cottrell ( 2004 ) noted that work-life balance is frequently still being viewed as that illusory end which sounds notional in theory, but unattainable in pattern. Therefore, this survey aims to help the client in the analysis of work-life balance scheme implemented successfully by other organisations. This is a worthy piece of research as it can help Marina Bay Sands Hotel and Casino in placing countries of emphasis, its chief effects and how work-life balance scheme can be a preventive method to cut down emphasis in the altering demographics of today ‘s work force.

In add-on, this survey can assist the client prevent unneeded societal and economic costs which can be resulted from straitening influences led by emphasis on persons or directors, at the same clip addition occupation satisfaction and productiveness. They might do usage of this survey to explicate thoughts which can assist diminish emphasis degrees and actuate employees to equilibrate work and life.

2. Background and Introduction

It is good recognized that occupational emphasis is a monolithic job particularly in the service sector of cordial reception industry. However, it is surprising that occupational emphasis have non been studied every bit much as one would anticipate in the cordial reception industry. Caligiuri and Givelekian ( 2008: 19 ) said the effects of emphasis besides include “ reduced occupation satisfaction, occupational committedness and overall work success ” ( cited in Poelmans and Caligiuri, 2008: 19 ) . The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development ( 2009 ) further noted that emphasis is one of the most of import grounds behind the increasing degree of absenteeism. Other than absenteeism, occupational emphasis has been recognized as the chief subscriber towards the tallness of turnover rates in the cordial reception industry as shown in Table 1.3 below, which are frequently caused from troubles in equilibrating work and life. Factors shown to impact staff the most while seeking to equilibrate work and life includes long on the job hours, deficiency of flexibleness in being able to change their working hours, clip off or go forth agreements, deficiency of entree to suited child care agreements, and undue emphasiss and ill will in the workplace ( Department of Health, 2006 ) .

Harmonizing to Karatepe and Uludag ( 2007: 103 ) “ frontline employees in the hotel industry who had trouble in disbursement clip with their household and other societal committednesss as a consequence of their job-related duties were more susceptible to elevated degrees of emotional exhaustion ” ( cited in Deery, 2008b: 103 ) . As a consequence, many hotel employees will hold purposes to go forth the organisation. Similarly, a research by Netemeyer et Al ( 2004 ) found that work-life struggle leads to increased turnover rates, thereby making greater emphasis degrees for those left in the work environment. Furthermore, Deery, M. ( 2008a ) mentioned that the overly long hours, manner of direction and struggle between work and household life, present barriers in doing the cordial reception work environment an attractive and stable one excessively.

To cut down emphasis degrees, it has been progressively popular for assorted organisations to implement work-life balance scheme, be it to profit single demands or organisational demands as high degree of emphasis frequently means that there are troubles equilibrating work and life ( Lowe, 2006 ) . Visser and Williams ( 2006: 14 ) specify work-life balance as “ holding sufficient control and liberty over where, when and how you work to carry through your duties inside and outside paid work ” . Good direction pattern has moved beyond the traditional methods to embracing a whole new scope of work-life balance scheme which allows employees benefits and flexibleness to back up modern life styles.

Flexible work agreements could be the most impactful scheme among all work-life patterns because they shape the day-to-day operations of an organisation and the day-to-day modus operandis of its employees. Therefore, to cut down the degree of emphasis that employees encounter, organisations are encouraged to retrace occupation modus operandis so that employees have greater control and less emphasis associated with the freedom to equilibrate their work and life clip. The following tabular array shows the characteristics and benefits of flexible work agreement used in Singapore.

Table 1.1: Flexible Work Agreement

Flexible Work Agreement

Features

Benefits

Flexi-time/ flexi hours

Employees choose when they start and end work daily, every bit long as they complete the agreed-upon figure of hours over an accounting period e.g. 40 hours in 1 hebdomad.

Companies frequently stipulate nucleus hours during which employees must be present e.g. 10am to 3pm.

Organizations can:

Extend operating hours without increasing costs.

Make the difference between an employee being focused at work and one rushing to start/leave work every twenty-four hours.

Part-Time

Employees work fewer than full-time weekly/monthly hours.

Employees entitled to pro-rated benefits. This could be a impermanent or lasting agreement.

Recruit from larger labour pool

Retain skilled and valued staff if they do non desire to work full-time

Reduce absenteeism

Facilitate phased retirement and re-entry

Maintain skilled, committed and experienced parttime labour to provide to seasonal extremums of employment e.g. tourer season in cordial reception industry.

Compressed work Agenda

Employees work full-time hours in fewer than the usual figure of yearss e.g. working 10 hours a twenty-four hours for 4 yearss when the normal agreement is a 40-hour 5-day hebdomad.

Frequently used in service-intensive environment where there is

24/7 demand.

Extend hours of service to run into client demands

Reduce figure of displacements and handovers for better service continuity

Better attract and retain employees by supplying more off yearss

Custom-make working hours and yearss to run into demands of employees or specific concern undertakings

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower ( 2005 )

Contrary to flexible work agreements, leave agreements have the aim to let employees to travel off from work for a longer period of clip. Besides that, leave policies have frequently been found to be positively related to committedness and productiveness and reduces employee turnover. The following tabular array outlines the characteristics of leave benefits.

Table 1.2: Leave Benefits

Leave Benefits

Features

Compassionate Leave

Offered to employees who have suffered a decease in the household

Extended pregnancy leave

Offered to female parents as an extension of the statutory pregnancy leave proviso period

Family attention leave

Offered to employees as an extension of child care leave to other members of the household every bit good

Paternity leave

Offered to a male parent for the birth of his kid

Sabbatical/renewal leave

Normally unpaid leave of 3-6 months offered for employees who are in high-stress environments to

take a interruption and recharge before returning to work

Study/exam leave

Offered to employees who are taking tests

Time off/urgent leave

Offered to employees so that they can go to to non-work exigencies

First twenty-four hours of school leave

Offered to parents whose kid is go toing his or her first twenty-four hours at kindergarten or primary school

Voluntary Service Leave

Offered to employees who want to volunteer at voluntary public assistance organisations

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower ( 2005 )

With the demands and precedences of employees altering over clip, organisations should look beyond supplying the leave benefits for employees. In short, work-life balance scheme can aline the demands of organisation and single to achieve a win-win state of affairs. The undermentioned Figure 1.1 shows the benefits of improved work and life balance steps.

Figure 1.1 Benefits to Employers and Employees in Supplying and Supporting Employee Work-life Balance

Broader endowment pool available

Better physical and mental wellness

Reduced Employee turnover

Improved employee keeping

Earlier return to work after pregnancy leave

Improved Work/Life Balance Measures

Reduced absenteeism

Improved public presentation

Improved occupation satisfaction

Positive employer stigmatization

Beginning: Hudson Highland Group, Inc ( 2005 )

3. Aim and Aims

3.1. Aim

This survey aims to analyze the relation between occupational emphasis and work-life balance, at the same clip, evaluates how work-life balance has proven to be a successful scheme in cut downing occupational emphasis and increase benefits for employees and organisations.

3.2. Aims

To measure the effectivity of work-life balance scheme as an execution to cut down emphasis, lessening labour turnover and increase benefits for employees and organisations.

To measure the strength of the work-life balance scheme used successfully by local organisations through the analysis of comparative instance surveies.

To develop recommendations about how organisation needs to pattern frontward in the usage of work-life balance scheme.

4. Research Design

4.1. Research Method

In this survey, the research worker will utilize more than one research technique to obtain the informations and information. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used as agencies of steering the research worker to understand specific phenomena and to measure the findings. Both local and foreign theories with the assistance of local statistics from the cordial reception and infirmary industry will be examined so as to hold a stronger comparing and better justification of the tendencies.

4.2. Datas Collection

4.2.1 Qualitative Data

Harmonizing to Poelmans and Caligiuri ( 2008: 122 ) qualitative analysis “ helps to garner in deepness info about a peculiar plan, patterns, or inaugural utilizing employee ‘s sentiments, feelings and attitudes ” . Therefore, comprehensive comparative instance surveies and informations are used as a footing for qualitative research to measure and place how work-life balance scheme can cut down stress degree and turnover rate at the same clip addition benefits for organisations.

Case surveies of the service industry in Singapore, chiefly the survey of Sheraton Towers Singapore ( STS ) where cordial reception is comfortable will be looked into so as to hold a strong justification. STS has besides been an prototype in the cordial reception industry of Singapore as it has been a successful user of work-life balance scheme. In add-on, critical analysis will be done by comparing the theories and informations with the infirmary industry as they have a common labour market. Majority of the Singapore infirmaries are already utilizing work-life balance scheme successfully ( Ministry Of Manpower, 2006c ) . However, merely two chief infirmaries instance surveies such as Changi General Hospital Singapore ( CGH ) and Kandang Kerbau Women and Children ‘s ‘ Hospital Singapore ( KKH ) where labour and on the job conditions are similar to the cordial reception industry will be discussed. This is to see if analyses are similar or different and if different, which is more valid or successful in footings of measuring.

Feedback from directors will besides be presented to place benefits or challenges faced from implementing work-life programmes. On the other manus, there will besides be feedback from employees about work-life programmes ‘ benefits. Most of the qualitative informations which are collected chiefly from authorities studies will be able to supply valuable, honest and meaningful information relation to values and perceptual experiences.

4.2.2 Quantitative Data

Quantitative informations are “ informations which involve analysis of measures or measurings within informations ( Johns and Lee-Ross, 1998: 72 ) . The research worker will utilize authorities studies such as the Ministry of Manpower in Singapore to demo the turnover rate of hotels and eating houses and the proportion of employees among the different industries on flexible working agreement. The quantitative attack will be carried out to back up the theories by measuring how work-life balance scheme have an effectual attack to cut down emphasis degrees, labour turnover rates, and to increase occupation satisfaction and other benefits. The research worker will besides utilize archival informations from company records such as abrasion rates, labour per centums, productiveness index and other related figures to farther back up the findings of the qualitative informations instance surveies.

5. Datas Presentation

In the undermentioned subdivisions, the high turnover rate of cordial reception industry will be shown, followed by three different instance surveies to warrant how work-life balance can increase benefits for organisations and diminish turnover rates.

5.1 Employee turnover Rate

Deery, M. ( 2008a ) mentioned that the function of emphasis has taken a more “ forepart of phase function ” in being identified as a important cause of employee turnover. Coincidentally, turnover rate of the cordial reception industry has been the highest among other industries in Singapore. This can be justified by the surrender rate shown in Table 1.3 below.

Table 1.3: Average Monthly Resignation Rate by Industry of Singapore

Year 2007

Year 2008

Year 2009 Q1

Year 2009 Q2

Entire

2.0

2.0

1.8

1.8

Manufacturing

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.6

Construction

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.7

Wholesale & A ; Retail

2.7

2.6

2.3

2.2

Transport & A ; Storage

1.4

1.5

1.2

1.1

Hotels & A ; Restaurants

4.3

3.9

3.7

4.0

Information & A ; Communicationss

2.3

2.0

1.5

1.3

Financial Services

1.9

1.5

1.0

1.3

Real Estate & A ; Leasing Services

3.1

2.9

2.6

2.5

Professional Servicess

2.2

2.1

1.4

1.4

Admin & A ; Support Services

3.7

3.7

3.3

3.4

Community, Social & A ; Personal Services

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.0

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower, ( 2009 )

The one-year informations computed in per centums in Table 1.3 are based on the simple norms of the four quarterly informations in the twelvemonth, refering to private sector constitutions each with at least 25 employees. The Ministry Of Manpower ( 2005 ) states that turnover is dearly-won whereby replacing a rank and file employee costs about 50 % of the place ‘s one-year wage while replacing a director degree employee can be up to 150 % of his or her one-year wage.

Therefore, in the undermentioned subdivision, instance surveies from similar industry will be analyzed to demo how successful organisations use work-life balance scheme to cut down turnover rate and besides other unneeded economic and societal costs. In add-on, the instance surveies will assist to place how work-life balance scheme has made all the benefits mentioned in Figure 1.1 possible.

5.2 Case Studies

5.2.1 Case 1: Sheraton Towers Singapore ( STS )

STS is a hotel and eating house industry, franchise of Starwood Hotels & A ; Resorts Worldwide, one of the universe ‘s largest hotel and leisure companies. Voted one of the universe ‘s top hotels by Conde Nast Traveler Gold List, STS sets the benchmark in Singapore ‘s cordial reception industry ( Ministry of Manpower, 2006b ) particularly holding used work-life balance scheme successfully. The following tabular array shows that hotels and eating houses industry holding the highest per centum of employees on flexible working agreements.

Table 1.4: Proportion of Employees on Flexible Working Agreements

Industry

Entire %

Part-Time

FlexiTime

Manufacturing

1.3

1.0

0.3

Construction

0.6

0.5

0.1

Wholesale & A ; Retail

7.3

6.2

1.1

Transport & A ; Storage

1.7

1.7

Hotels & A ; Restaurants

24.8

24.7

0.1

Information & A ; Communicationss

3.7

1.6

2.1

Financial Services

5.2

0.8

4.4

Real Estate & A ; Leasing Services

5.6

5.6

Professional Servicess

4.6

0.9

3.7

Admin & A ; Support Services

3.9

3.8

0.1

Community, Social & A ; Personal Services

6.5

6.3

0.2

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower, ( 2008 )

Table 1.4 above illustrates that the usage of flexible working agreements is more popular in the Hotels and Restaurants industry as compared to other industries. 24.7 % of the employees in the hotels and eating houses industry are on a parttime footing therefore this justifies that the parttime on the job manner under flexible work agreements is extremely implemented and STS is one of them. On the other manus, one of the chief work-life balance scheme implemented successfully by STS is the flexible work agreements which allow employees to work parttime, irregular hours and besides clip or hours off for employees to take part in wellness and athleticss activities. STS besides uses household attention leave as one of the work-life balance scheme ( ibid. ) . The organisation non merely allows critical unwellness, mourning, paternity, pregnancy, matrimony and scrutiny leave, it besides offers employee support strategies and services to assist equilibrate employee ‘s work and life. Some illustrations are:

Employee eating house merely serves healthy and good nutrient and drink

Paying Recommend-A-Friend inducement for successfully recommended relative/friend for the occupation

Programs such as wellness and health negotiations, smoking surcease enterprises, H1N1 vaccination ( Employer confederation, 2009 ) .

Activities such as association football, yoga, bowling and film darks

Case 1 Findingss

As a consequence for utilizing work-life balance scheme chiefly flexible work agreements, leave benefits and employee support strategies and services, the hotel has won the Singapore Family Friendly Employer Award twice ( Ministry of Manpower, 2005 ) . There was besides a lessening in figure of medical leave yearss taken ; 1280.5 yearss in 2004 to 1216.5 yearss in 2005 ( ibid. ) . The figure of perfect attending award victors besides increased from 77 in 2004 to 111 in 2005 ( ibid. ) . This has proven that employees are more committed to work than earlier. Besides that, the hotel ‘s abrasion rate ( 25 % to 30 % per annum ) is lower than the industry mean abrasion rate ( 40 % to 45 % ) ( Ministry Of Manpower, 2006b ) . There was besides a higher associate ‘s satisfaction index from 3.92 in 2004 to 4.04 in 2005 ( ibid. ) . In add-on, the productiveness index measured by gross per associate improved from $ 110,000 per associate in 2004 to $ 126,450 per associate in 2005 ( Ministry of Manpower, 2006c ) . Last, the schemes were able to pull a pool of labour to work in this hotel every bit good as retaining skilled and valued staff ( ibid. ) .

In relation to the benefits, responsibility officer Mohamed Ali Bin V.K. Kather said, “ With the hotel taking attention of my personal wellbeing, I can concentrate better at work and be more committed towards concern aims ” ( ibid. ) .

Other than STS, other local hotels which are utilizing similar schemes are Banyan Tree and Raffles Hotel which the latter received the ‘Employer of Choice ‘ in 2007 ( Raffles Hotels & A ; Resorts, 2008 ) .

Case Studies in Comparison to the Hospital Industry

In the following subdivision, two instance surveies from the infirmary industry will be discussed and analyzed.

Although work-life scheme differs sector by sector, there are some similarities among sectors every bit good. Ministry of Manpower ( 2005 ) mentioned that in add-on to larning within their ain sectors, employers should larn from other sectors. For illustration, since both health care and cordial reception industry involves 24-hour service operations where employees need to be physically present, it is possible that patterns in infirmaries could be applied in cordial reception concerns, and frailty versa.

It is besides mentioned that two chief challenges that infirmaries faced are a deficiency of skilled labour and a nerve-racking work environment ( ibid. ) . The infirmary and cordial reception industry are therefore frequently compared as they are competitory in footings of labour pool and have really obvious similarities. The following tabular array summarizes the similarities of both industries.

Table 1.5: Similarities between Hospital and Hospitality Industry

Hospital

Cordial reception Industry

Operating Hourss

24 Hourss

24 Hourss

Working Hours

Nurses in these establishments may work darks, weekends, and vacations, approximately 40 hours per hebdomad.

Because hotels are unfastened around the clock, dark, weekends and vacations work is common. Many lodging directors work more than 40 hours per hebdomad.

Emergency

Staff in infirmary may be on call to work on short notice.

Upper direction will frequently be on-call, which means they may be called back to work at any clip.

Job Scope

Physically demanding and nerve-racking. Staffs spend many hours standing and walking, and they frequently face heavy work loads.

Physically demanding and nerve-racking. Most businesss require that workers stand for long periods ; some require the lifting of heavy points.

Beginning: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, ( 2009 )

Besides the similarities mentioned in Table 1.5, the usage of infirmary instance surveies are highly utile in the local context as of the 67 victors of Singapore ‘s work-life excellence award in 2004, 12 were healthcare establishments ( Ministry of Manpower, 2005 ) .

5.2.2 Case 2: Changi General Hospital ( CGH )

CGH, a member of the SingHealth Group, serves as a health care hub for the eastern sector of Singapore ( Ministry Of Manpower, 2006a ) . Similarly to Sheraton Towers Singapore, it uses the flexible work agreements, household attention leave and employee support strategies and services scheme. The flexible work agreements include tight work agenda, parttime and flexible start and terminal times besides known as staggered hours ( Ministry Of Manpower, 2005 ) .

Under a tight work agenda, nurses work merely three or four yearss in a hebdomad. They will be on 12-hour displacements with a agenda that allows them four yearss away in one hebdomad and three yearss off in the following on a biweekly rotary motion. Staff can besides go forth duly alternatively of making unneeded overtime as displacements overlap.

Figure 1.2 Example of Compressed Work Agenda

Team

Week 1

Week 2

1

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

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Calciferol

Nitrogen

2

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

3

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

4

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

Team

Week 3

Week 4

1

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

2

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

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Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

3

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

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4

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Nitrogen

1

2

Calciferol

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower, ( 2005 )

Legend: Calciferol: Day switch N: Night displacement, 1: first twenty-four hours off 2: Second twenty-four hours off

Ministry of Manpower ( 2005 ) notes that 83 % of infirmary employees are adult females and maternity and parttime work are frequently strongly linked. Poelmans and Beham ( 2008: 19 ) mentioned that “ With the reaching of kids, many adult females switch to parttime work. Womans frequently take on part-time occupations because low-cost child care installations are non available or because they could non happen a full-time place that offered flexible on the job hours ” ( cited in Poelmans and Caligiuri, 2008: 19 ) . In this instance, regular parttime staffs work between 21 and 29.5 hours per hebdomad ( Ministry of Manpower, 2006a ) . Besides that, household attention leaves benefits include paternity leave, matrimony leave, compassionate leave for lasting staff. Harmonizing to Ministry of Manpower ( 2008 ) , the employee support strategies and services are as follows:

Health and health programmes, including one-year wellness showing, weight loss direction programmes and wellness negotiations. The households of staff members are besides encouraged to take part in healthy lifestyle activities such as walkathons and to use of CGH ‘s in-house installations to supervise their ain wellness.

Convenience services such as courier pick-up services and school vacation enrichment programmes for the kids of staff members

Organize equal support programme to supply psychological support to staff that are affected by emphasis in the health care environment

Workplace child care and fittingness centre

Case 2 Findingss

The tight work agenda allows nurses to be in more control during work therefore leting them to better pull off household attention duties. There was an betterment in its employee satisfaction index, and the organisation saw a lower abrasion rate, from 26.64 % in 1997 to 13.44 % in 1998 ( ibid. ) . Besides that, its wellness and health programmes have resulted in a drastic bead in the per centum of staff with conditions such as high blood pressure and high glucose degrees, taking to a 25 per centum lessening in medical disbursals per staff between twelvemonth 2002 and twelvemonth 2003 ( ibid. ) . Last, flexi-hour take up rate is 4.1 % , higher than the national norm of less than 1.5 % ( ibid. ) . This shows that employees prefer to work in environment which allows a balance in work and life.

Furthermore, CEO of CGH mentioned, “ When the staff are happy with the work agreement they have, they are more productive, and they are happy at the workplaceaˆ¦they see it as suiting into their life style. And if we achieve that and we become employer of pick, we are truly ace happy ” ( Ministry of Manpower, 2005 ) .

5.2.3 Case 3: KK Women ‘s and Children ‘s Hospital

KKH is the largest medical installation in Singapore offering health care services in the country of adult females ‘s and kids ‘s wellness ( Ministry Of Manpower, 2006c ) and being one of the innovators of work-life balance scheme in Singapore, this instance survey will be utile to farther back up the purposes and aims of this research paper. Similar to CGH as mentioned above, KKH uses flexible work agreements such as tight work hebdomad and parttime agenda. In fact, KKH foremost started with the 12 hr displacement pattern scheme among local infirmaries ( ibid. ) .

Ministry of Manpower ( 2005 ) states that nurse in KKH were organized in a stiff 3-shift rotary motion, which gave them basically one twenty-four hours off for every three yearss worked. When some wards were given the flexibleness to reconstitute their agendas, they switched to two strategies:

aˆ? A five twenty-four hours hebdomad roll with an extension in the forenoon and afternoon displacements by one hr each. This resulted in an convergence of two hours during the peak work period in the center of the twenty-four hours when staff from both displacements were on responsibility ( ibid. )

aˆ? A 12-hour displacement agenda, which enabled a biweekly roll with four yearss away in one hebdomad followed by three yearss off in the following ( ibid. ) .

Case 3 Findingss

LifeWorkz ( 2010 ) stated that the staff abrasion rate decreased from 17.1 % to 9.9 % within three old ages. The figure of yearss taken for medical leave dropped significantly and at that place was improved productiveness. Besides, many adept staff was valued and experiences being retained. 85 % of the staff who participated in the employee sentiment study indicated that the company ‘s work-life enterprises were an of import factor impacting their determination to go on working in the infirmary therefore this has proven higher occupation satisfaction which besides resulted in higher client satisfaction.

Ministry of Manpower ( 2006c ) besides noted that the per centum of staff holding troubles get bying with emphasis dropped drastically from 45 % in 2003 to 4 % in 2004. “ The organisation has now gained a repute as an enlightened and caring employer even as it maintained its repute for its clinical expertness and high quality of health care ” ( Ministry of Manpower, 2005 ) .

Harmonizing to TheEdge ( 2008 ) , former HR manager of KKH said “ The cost of non implementing work-life balance would be the cost of burnout which is traveling to be greater cost to organisation ” . After coming up with flexible work agreements, the turnover rate dropped from 17.1 % in 2001, to 15.6 % in 2002, 13.9 % in 2003 and 9.9 % in 2004 ( ibid. ) .

Overall, it is a win-win state of affairs for the organisation as it reaped many benefits such as betterments in employee ‘s wellbeing, enlisting, productiveness and committedness.

5.3 Drumhead Findingss

The undermentioned tabular arraies present the chief findings of the organisations discussed earlier. Looking from Tables 1.6 to 1.9 below, it is obvious that being a innovator of work-life balance scheme, KKH is utilizing more schemes as compared to the other two instances therefore being an prototype of work-life balance scheme.

Table 1.6: Flexible Work Arrangement Used

Flexible Work Agreement

Compressed work hebdomad

Flexible Start/End clip

Job sharing

Part-time

Tele-commuting

Sheraton Towers Singapore

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Changi General Hospital

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

KK Women ‘s And Children Hospital

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower, ( 2006c )

Table 1.7: Leave Benefits Used

Leave Benefits

Bereavement leave

Emergency/Time off

Family attention leave

Marriage leave

Paternity Leave

Study/Exam lave

Sheraton Towers Singapore

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Changi General Hospital

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

KK Women ‘s And Children Hospital

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower, ( 2006c )

Table 1.8: Employee Support Scheme Used

Employee Support Scheme

Activities include household members

Guidance Servicess

Family lactation room

Fiscal aid strategies

Health and health

Time-saving services/ Facilities

Sheraton Towers Singapore

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Changi General Hospital

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

KK Women ‘s And Children Hospital

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower, ( 2006c )

Table 1.9: Work-life Infrastructure

Work-life Infrastructure

Work-life harmoniousness as mission

Designated work-life officer squad

Staff feedback on work-life

Regular reappraisal of work-life program

Employee demands are on a regular basis assessed

Programs are used by employees

Sheraton Towers Singapore

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Changi General Hospital

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

KK Women ‘s And Children Hospital

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Beginning: Ministry Of Manpower, ( 2006c )

Table 2.0: Overall Main Findings of Organizations in Similar Industries

Organization

Work-life Balance Strategy

Consequences

Sheraton Towers Singapore

Flexible work agreements, leave benefits, employee support strategies

Lower abrasion rate, lessening in figure of medical foliages, reduced emphasis, addition in figure of perfect attending, higher associates satisfaction index, improved of productiveness index and labour attractive force.

Raffles Hotel

Flexible work agreements, employee support strategies

Improved enlisting and keeping of its employees, higher occupation satisfaction, and decreased emphasis.

Banyan Tree

Flexible work agreements, employee support strategies

Higher occupation satisfaction, improved enlisting, keeping of its employees and decreased emphasis.

Changi General Hospital

Flexible work agreements, leave benefits, employee support strategies

Improved employee satisfaction index, lessening in absenteeism and staff medical disbursals, lowered abrasion rate, higher flexi-hour take up rate than the national norm and decreased emphasis.

KK Women ‘s And Children ‘s Hospital

Flexible work agreements, leave benefits, employee support strategies

Lower abrasion rate, reduced emphasis, nest eggs on overtime, lessening in figure of medical foliages, improved productiveness, increased committedness and improved enlisting and keeping of its employees.

Beginning: Banyan Tree Hotels ( 2008 ) , Ministry Of Manpower ( 2001 ) , Raffles Hotels ( 2008 )

The comparative analysis of the instance surveies between cordial reception and infirmary is utile because of their similar working conditions and occupation range. Furthermore, the work-life balance scheme in the infirmary industry of Singapore are at its progress phase and widely used therefore it can be more helpful to warrant the execution and benefits into the cordial reception industry where labour competition is highly competitory against the health care services. Findingss suggest that local established organisations have gained desired benefits from the successful execution of work-life balance scheme. Most normally used are flexible work agreements, leave benefits and employee support strategies. However, flexible work agreement is still the most popular work-life balance enterprise. The overall findings besides suggests that much can be learnt from those employers who have been able to implement work-life balance policies and patterns and obtained concern benefits from holding done so. The consequences prove that work-life balance can be efficaciously good for everyone: employers, employees and their household.

6. Recommendations for Client

In this subdivision, a figure of recommendations, based on current opinion and empirical survey may help the client to work towards doing work-life balance a world in their administration. The overall findings and informations presented in earlier subdivisions have proved that many benefits can be learnt from those organisations which have implemented work-life balance scheme successfully. However, the path to accomplishing excellence in work-life harmoniousness must be appropriate to an organisation ‘s current province. In add-on, work-life balance policies and patterns adopted should complement an overall concern scheme in order to be able to hold sustainability in the long tally.

Besides that, the debut of work-life balance policies will surely uncover betterment and consequences, but it must be done with effectual communicating within the organisation in order to be seen as genuinely back uping work-life harmoniousness. Visser and Williams ( 2006 ) mentioned that a deficiency of effectual communicating around policies can besides ensue in a deficiency of consciousness of policies or a belief that they are merely applicable to certain types of employees. Ministry of Manpower ( 2005 ) besides mentioned that to guarantee Singapore companies benefit from work-life scheme, it is of import to observe that the organisations make cognition on work-life scheme available on an easy accessible one-stop information resource. Such communicating can be brought across through channels such as electronic mails, notice boards, newssheets and regular squad meetings. More elaborate information may be shared during the launch of major work-life programmes or during direction duologues with employees.

Hudson Highland Group, Inc ( 2005 ) besides mentioned that organisations ever have the misconception that physical presence equates to commitment. Therefore it is suggested that the client guarantee that all productive employees have equal entree to career chances every bit long as they are under work-life balance policies even though they may non be physically seeable.

In drumhead, these recommendations are made to help the client to travel up towards a more holistic experience that includes a balance between work and place life. In making so, effects of emphasis such as employee turnover, absenteeism, low occupation satisfaction and committedness can be alleviated.

7. Decision

In decision, the aims of this research paper have been fulfilled. The analysis and findings of local instance surveies and informations presented have demonstrated the strength of work-life balance scheme being used by successful organisations in relation to forestall occupation emphasis at the same clip, diminish labour turnover rate. On the other manus, since work-life balance scheme has proven to be an effectual tool to increase benefits for both employees and organisation with grounds from similar industry illustrations, it would be in the client ‘s best involvement to give its resources towards supplying work-life benefits to the employees with the assistance of effectual communicating within the organisation.

Furthermore, WFC Resources ( 2008 ) noted that many employers are seeking difficult to cut down employee anxiousness with “ stress direction ” plans, but there is no “ plan ” that can countervail long on the job hours and the emphasis of unachieved outlooks and duties both at place and at work. On the contrary, many research workers have provided empirical grounds that work-life balance patterns are an of import agencies to accomplish competitory advantage through retaining the adept staff and pulling the talented, at the same clip is a preventive method to occupational emphasis. Krings et Al. ( 2009 ) states that incorporating work and life together would connote much more than ‘family ‘ , at the same clip screen assorted facets of the personal life of the persons: engagements and committednesss, both at place and in the community. Poelmans and Caligiuri ( 2008 ) besides mentioned that keeping the work-life balance of employees helps cut down the hazard of emphasis and burnout and can take the organisation to overall success.

However, it is of import to observe that work-life balance is non about leting employees to take when they want to work, but it is about equilibrating the demands of work and life to better concern fight and encourage persons to be motivated and productive at work ( Cottrell, 2004 ) .

Last but non least, for the hereafter research worker on similar subjects, as merely secondary informations has been used in this paper, the usage of primary research in future would be more advantageous as interviews and papers analysis can be conducted. In a primary instance, big organisations could be approached to help this survey particularly through contacts with human resources manager therefore leting honest feedbacks from employees, and better findings to be realized.