E-Government is the usage of engineering to heighten the entree to and bringing of authorities services to profit citizens, concern spouses and employees [ 4 ] . For mention to e-Government in land of Bahrain please see [ 64 ] .
E-governance is the usage of Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) by different histrions of the society with the purpose to better their entree to information and to construct their capacities [ 65 ] .
It is neologism and contraction of electronic democracy, is the use of electronic communications engineerings, such as the Internet, in heightening democratic procedures within a democratic democracy or representative democracy. It is a political development still in its babyhood, every bit good as the topic of much argument and activity within authorities, civic-oriented groups and societies around the universe [ 5 ] .
E-voting combines engineering with the democratic procedure, in order to do vote more efficient and convenient for electors. E-voting ( or electronic vote ) allows electors to either ballot by computing machine from their places or at the polling station.
E-Voting Machines ( E-voting at the canvassing booth )
This signifier of e-voting is virtually the same as regular vote, but replaces the ballot paper with electronic vote machines. These Electronic machines are backed by some computing machine french friess to hive away the informations ( ballots in this instance ) and can be retrieved when connected to the chief web.
ICT: Information and Communication Technology
DRE: Direct Record Electronic
Chapter 1 Introduction
Use of the Internet and other electronic devices for communicating has non merely go a criterion for work but besides for people ‘s private lives. The facilitation of on-line vote will be an adaptation of democratic processs to people ‘s demand for simpleness and convenience. A more of import facet of e-voting, nevertheless, is its possible facilitation of the execution of political rights.
1.2 Background of the job
1.3 Need for the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Purpose of the Study
In the information age, it seems that the application of information engineering is an indispensable inclination for the development of organisations in 21st century, irrespective of public or private organisations. The application of information engineering into public personal businesss briefly includes the electronic democracy, which is governance-oriented, and e-government, which is service-oriented.
E-Voting being a critical portion of the services being offered by e-Government would take the application of information engineering to better the efficiency of public sector evidently and the engagement of the citizen through the electronic forum [ 35 ] .
The intent of this research is to travel through the current state of affairs of Bahrain ‘s democracy and electoral system in context of the position point of people of Bahrain. Furthermore, one intent to do a research in this country is to acquire to cognize the factors impacting the execution of electronic vote in Bahrain in approaching hereafter.
1.6 Premise of the Study
1.7 Research inquiry
For our research work we formulated research inquiry as follows:
Based on the effectivity of presently employed discrepancies of e-voting what factors can do evoting success in Bahrain?
Definitions of words from the research inquiries:
“ Ability to accomplish stated ends or aims, judged in footings of both end product and impact. “ [ 19 ]
In the instance of electoral system, effectivity means “ The power of a ballot to act upon the election result. ” In my research I will concentrate on the replacement of paper-based vote with electronic one. So ballots will be replaced by electronic ballots.
In my research I am traveling to mensurate Effectiveness with these 4 standards:
projecting a ballot
computation of the consequences
avoiding human mistakes
I divide users of the e-voting system in 3 groups:
3. Electoral campaigners
For electors these standards of effectual e-voting system are of import:
For Government of import standards of effectual e-voting system are:
For electoral campaigners most of import standards of effectual e-voting system are:
“ An event that accomplishes its intended intent ” [ 20 ]
In instance of e-voting success means being effectual system to replace paper-based vote. In my research the intended intent of the e-voting system is to fulfill the demands of the following groups of users:
3. Electoral campaigners
From electors perspective e-voting system will be successful if:
it will be easy-to-use system
one will be able to do fast vote and acquire consequences faster than it was provided with paper-based system ( clip factor )
It will non be a complicated procedure ( transparence factor )
Systems dependability, security and objectiveness will supply right vote consequences ( consequences factor )
From Government perspective e-voting system will be successful if:
monetary value of this system will be low-cost and non much medium for the budget ( monetary value factor )
it will be reclaimable with minimal costs involved and would be able to work in the long term position
it will supply consequences fast ( clip factor )
there will be fewer ailments from electors and electoral campaigners about the process and consequences of the elections ( transparence and consequences factor )
it will extinguish human factor mistakes
Form the electoral campaigner ‘s perspective e-voting system will be successful if:
they will acquire faster consequences of the vote ( clip factor )
they will be certain that these consequences of the vote are right ( consequences factor )
they will be able to supervise electoral procedure at any clip ( transparency factor )
1.9 Boundary lines
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter defines, and explains the basic constructs of the Internet engineering, E- Government and Democracy.
2.2 Internet Definition
Internet was invented by the section of defence, United States of America in 1960s as a communicating web for defence research intents ; no 1 could hold foreseen how it would transform society three decennaries subsequently. Today, the cyberspace has become a portion of the day-to-day life of many people around the universe [ 23 ] [ 24 ] .
Explosive growing in Internet use and rapid development of e-commerce in the private sector have put turning force per unit area on the populace sector to function citizens electronically, which is frequently known as the e-government and this enterprise is taken to supply public services and to authorise citizens and communities through information engineering, particularly through internet [ 25 ] [ 26 ] .
The Internet provides low-cost and efficient solutions for the exchange of information but there are serious security and trust issues that need to be addressed when covering with sensitive authorities information. The usage of Internet for mission-critical minutess must supply solutions to guarantee that merely authorised authorities functionaries have entree the sensitive informations. It must besides turn to concerns about dependability, beginning and unity. In add-on to the security issues, the usage of Internet for critical authorities services must supply trust and unity in both the informations and the minutess [ 27 ] .
E-government applies constructs of electronic commercialism ( e.g. information and selling through Web sites, selling to clients online ) to authorities operations.
E-Government is merely defined as the usage of ICT to better the procedure of authorities. In a narrow sense it is sometime define as citizens ‘ services, re-engineering with the engineering, or procurance over the Internet [ 29 ] .Digital ( electronic ) authorities is about transforming authorities service bringing through the usage of engineering [ 75 ] .UN universe study on public sector says that 90 per centum of member states have operational authorities web sites [ 1 ] [ 30 ] .
E-Government is the usage of engineering to heighten the entree to and bringing of authorities services to profit citizens, concern spouses and employees [ 4 ] .
Users ( Citizens ) expect the same degree of services from authorities as they have from the private sector and the authorities itself expects more effectual, productive and improved services as the private sector is. Having this all in common the e-Government still differs in its singularity of its interaction between authorities and its users. It has different issues to provide from different subjects [ 30 ] .
The usage of electronic bringing for authorities information, plans, schemes and services can named as e-services. These are available online “ 24h/7days ” . It besides refers to Electronic Service Delivery ( ESD ) and such look as ‘one-stop service centres ” . The latter describes state of affairs in which citizen demands are met through a individual contact with the authorities. In many instances it assumes a modernised forepart office but non needfully redesigned back office capacity. At the same clip, e-services emphasize advanced signifiers of citizen engagement and offer services that demonstrate serious rating of citizens as client of disposal. The strategic challenge is to present services to members of public along with dimensions such as quality, convenience and cost [ 34 ] .
2.3.2 E- Administration
This is the most hard to bring forth and prolong characteristic of e-Governance. In model of e-democracy ICT is used as an instrument to assist put dockets, set up precedences, make of import policies and take part in their execution in a deliberative manner. It refers to activities that addition citizen engagement including practical town meeting, unfastened meeting, cyber runs, feedback polls, public studies and community forums ( such as through e-consultation, e-voting ) . In short, if e-government is successfully implemented new empowered citizens may emerge.
They are able to organize the Internet biased confederation to react to assorted issues and accomplish economic and societal aims [ 34 ] .
2.3.3 E-Government Services and Phases
Harmonizing to a survey there are following dynamic phases through which e-Government will go through as electronic service germinating both inside and outside of the organisation and when it faces the public [ 30 ] :
Information, booklets, cusps, downloading signifiers. This involves doing of web sites and information portals to give inside informations of the single sections about themselves for the populace. It is widely implemented.
It includes E-voting, finishing signifiers online, registering revenue enhancements online, and regenerating driver ‘s licences, using for passports, unemployment benefit ; obtaining birth certificates/marriage licenses. This is a two manner communicating and as per from the citizen, one is able to alter the reference and some other personal information required by the authorities in order to maintain path of the citizens for their improvement. And once more playing the function Government is offering information to the citizens. Some of these services are implemented
It includes incorporating front and back-end systems across all sections to enable information sharing and a individual point of entree for citizens to multilayered authorities services. Here the spread between the front terminal and the back terminal systems are bridged to cut down the differences in between them. It is implemented in some progressive and individual bed authoritiess.
At this phase there will be personalization of e-government services and a 1:1 relationship with authorities across all sections. This would be the most advanced version of what we have already been into ; here Governments would give a full manus to the citizens to do penchants of the services being provided to them for their personal involvements.
In so making Governments would be giving more installations and independency to the citizens and they would experience comfort of utilizing the services within the e-Government.Not yet implemented [ 30 ] .
2.3.4 Adoption of E-Government Services
The bulk of e-government empirical surveies from practicians such as Accenture ( An American company ; provides consultancy ) , and international organisations such as the UN ( United Nations ) and OECD ( Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ) , concentrate on descriptive analyses of the “ province of e-government ” , “ e-government preparedness ” in states, or barriers and drivers to its execution and promotion. From an academic position, empirical surveies have been mostly focused on deeper apprehension of acceptance of e-government services utilizing Davis ‘ TAM ( Technology Acceptance Model ) and TPB ( Theory of Planned Behavior ) . Abundant empirical grounds suggests that theory of planned behaviour efficaciously explains single purposes and behaviour in following new engineerings, taking this in concern if we see e-government we find that it besides have no exclusion [ 30 ] .
There are two chief factors act uponing the acceptance of e-Government services as positions [ 30 ] :
1. The citizen ‘s position
The factors for acceptance include acquaintance or experience with e-services and authorities ; easiness of usage ; perceived utility ; trust in the organisation and service for illustration interacting with authorities on-line and the sensed safety/risk of supplying information to authorities ; perceived quality of information and service ; and perceived behavioural control and subjective norms [ 30 ] .
2. The Government ‘s position
The barriers to acceptance are the complexness of the department/agency paradigm ; hapless IT substructure ; HR restraints such as deficiency of skilled forces ; and deficiency of fiscal resources ; a reluctance and fright of sharing resources across sections and organisation.
While the chief drivers were schemes to better client satisfaction with online authorities services ; client demands for new or better services. In a study by Accenture, over 92 % of authorities executives that responded rated superior services as a concern jussive mood for e-government enterprises. In one case in the US, the driver for presenting e-government was to “ revolutionise ” the manner authorities sections operate internally and with citizens [ 30 ] .
In general followers are the services as rudimentss of e-Government [ 34 ] :
Servicess for the Citizens
1. Income revenue enhancements
2. Job hunt
3. Social security benefits
4. Personal paperss
5. Car enrollment
7. Declaration to the constabulary
8. Public libraries
9. Birth and matrimony certifications
10. Registration in higher instruction
11. Announcement of traveling
12. Health-related services
Servicess for Businesss
1. Social part for employees
2. Corporate revenue enhancement
3. Value Added Tax ( VAT )
4. Registration of a new company
5. Submission of statistical informations
6. Customss declarations
7. Environment-related licenses
8. Public Procurement
The term democracy indicates a signifier of authorities where all the province ‘s determinations are exercised straight or indirectly by a bulk of its people through a just elected procedure. When these factors are met a authorities can be classified as such. This can use to a battalion of authorities systems as these constructs transcend and frequently occur concomitantly with other types [ ] .In a phrase democracy is a authorities “ of the people, by the people, and for the people. ” [ 42 ] .
In the undermentioned treatment I am traveling to contract down my range to election procedure in choice of the regulating people in a democratic state Bahrain.
2.4.1 A position of election in Bahrain
Bahrain is a constitutional monarchy headed by the King Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa, the caput of authorities is the Prime Minister, Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa who presides over a cabinet of 15 members. At the beginning of 2001, His Majesty the King set in topographic point the first degree of the democratisation docket with the proclamation of the National Action Charter ( NAC ) , puting out constitutional rights and reforms, on which all eligible citizens, work forces and adult females, were invited to vote. The result was echoing 98.4 percent ballot in favour of the Charter. The indorsement of the authorities ‘s new proposals was incorporated in the revised Constitution, published on the same twenty-four hours as the declaration of the Kingdom of Bahrain, on the 14th of February 2002. On this twenty-four hours Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa made an proclamation that Bahrain would henceforth go a constitutional monarchy.
Bahrain has a bicameral parliament, which includes the Chamber of Deputies that was elected by general referendum and the Shura Council ( Consultative Council ) , which were appointed by His Majesty the King. Both houses have 40 members. The inaugural elections were held 2002, with Parliamentarians functioning four twelvemonth footings [ 43 ] .
Bahrain went through three parliamentary elections until now:
The first parliamentary elections under the amended Constitution were held in the Kingdom of Bahrain in 2002, the engagement rate in the elections was reported by the Bahraini authorities to be 53.2 % of registered electors. Peoples have testified to the success of the experiment on evidences of the ace readying and the best usage of engineering [ 47 ] . International criterions were adopted to guarantee the nonpartisanship and equity of the elections.
The 2nd parliamentary elections in 2006 for the 40-seat lower house of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, every bit good as municipal elections. There was a 72 % turnout in the first unit of ammunition of canvassing [ 92 ] .
The 3rd parliamentary elections in 2010, More than 318,000 were eligible to vote [ 92 ] . Head of the electoral committee and Justice Minister, Sheikh Khalid bin Ali al-Khalifa, gave an estimation of turnout of “ at least 67 per centum, ” less than the 72 % in 2006 and 53.4 % in 2002 [ 91 ] .
Legislation and legal sentiment Commission
The responsibility of the committee to form and carry on the election and to do such agreements as are necessary to guarantee that the election is conducted candidly, rightly, reasonably and in conformity with jurisprudence and that corrupt patterns are guarded against [ 47 ] .
Eligibility for rank of the Parliament
He shall be a Bahraini who enjoys all of his civil and political rights.
His name shall be listed on the electors ‘ agenda of the constituency in which he nominates himself.
He shall non be less than thirty old ages of age on the twenty-four hours of the elections.
He should be able to read and compose Arabic.
He shall non hold forfeited his rank of the Shura Council or Council of Representatives by order of the council in which he was a member for ground of loss of assurance or credibleness or because of go againsting his responsibilities as a member. Nevertheless, a individual who forfeited his rank can put up himself if the statutory term during which he forfeited his rank has ended, or if the Council in which he was a member issues n order revoking the ground that prevents the nomination following the forfeiture of rank after the shutting of the term during which the order was issued [ 47 ] .
Eligibility for being a Voter
He shall be a Bahraini national.
Shall have attained 21 old ages of age on the day of the month of the elections.
He shall be lawfully and mentally competent on the day of the month on which the agendas were prepared and during the period allowed for the rectification of agendas. A individual convicted of a disqualifying offense or offence shall be barred from exerting political rights while functioning his sentence.
He shall be a occupant of the electoral constituency as evidenced by his Smart card. If he is populating abroad, the topographic point of his last abode shall be his electoral constituency and if he has no topographic point of abode in the Kingdom, he will follow the topographic point of the abode of his immediate household [ 47 ] .
2.4.2 Electoral Procedure
Following is the process for the whole electoral process in Bahrain [ 47 ] :
1. Preparation of Voters ‘ Agendas
The readying of the electors ‘ agendas commenced good in front of the scheduled day of the month of the elections. The commissions produced the electors ‘ agendas from the database of the Population Register in co-operation with the Population Register Directorate at the Central Informatics Organization. These agendas listed the names of eligible electors in alphabetical order.
Any individual whose name is non listed on the agendas or whose inside informations are wrong may use to the Committee to name his name or rectify his inside informations. Similarly, any elector can bespeak the add-on of the name of any elector in his electoral constituency whose name was missed out or non included without a justifiable ground, or whose inside informations were non right, provided that such applications are submitted during the period of exposing the agendas. The Committee will publish its determination within three yearss from the day of the month of the application.
2. Registration of Campaigners
After fixing the concluding electors ‘ agendas, the door for nomination was opened.The Elections Supervisory Committee in every governorate received for the continuance of seven yearss, written applications for nominations of rank for the Council of Representatives, on the signifier designated for this intent. The application should stipulate the electoral constituency in which the campaigner nominates himself and it should non include any phrases or statements non required by it, otherwise the application will be considered invalid. The application should besides be accompanied by a non-refundable reception of BD200/- to the Treasury of the Ministry of Justice and Islamic Affairs.
On the scheduled day of the month of the elections, the Chairman of the Committee receives all ballot cards in a certain envelope from the representative of the Ministry of Justice and Islamic Affairs, .Before opening the doors of the election centre at 8.00 am. The Chairman of the Committee verifies the entire figure of ballot cards received and the Secretary records the reception of seals, the measures, the figure of ballot cards, the figure of ballot boxes and their keys in the proceedingss.
The Normal Process Flow at the Time of Voting:
The electors enter the hall from the doors marked with “ Entry ” mark in every Centre.
The electors stand by the tabular arraies to verify their individuality in two waiting lines, with one waiting line at the right and the other at the left of each tabular array. One of the United States Marshals Services will keep order of the waiting lines supplying gracious mode with the electors at all times.
One of the waiting lines will be designated and specified for adult females merely, which will be organized and controlled by female United States Marshals Services.
The elector will manus in his Smart card to one of the informations entry operators. The informations entry operators will take bends in utilizing the computing machine.
A transcript of the Smart card will non be acceptable.
The informations entry operators will guarantee of elector ‘s information through card reader and to corroborate the being of the elector ‘s name in the computing machine.
After such verification, the informations entry operator will give the elector a ballot card bespeaking to him the method of vote, guaranting that every elector shall:
Analyze the names of the campaigners and their exposure on the ballot card to be certain of the individuality of the campaigner he will vote for.
Vote for one campaigner merely.
Topographic point a tick grade merely in the circle provided. The card that has a different grade or bespeaking the ground for vote will be invalidated.
The informations entry operator will direct the elector to the vote booth.
The marshal standing at each voting booth will direct the electors who have verified their individuality to the vote topographic point.
The marshal standing at each voting booth will guarantee privateness and let sufficient clip for the elector to make full in the ballot card.
After finishing the ballot card, the marshal will direct the elector to the perceivers table where the ballot boxes are located.
The first perceiver will verify the elector ‘s name against his smart Card.
The first perceiver will guarantee the printing of the electors name in the list issued by the pressman to determine that the elector ‘s name is recorded in the computing machine and therefore corroborating his eligibility to vote.
The first perceiver will tag the printed name on the list printed by the pressman bespeaking that the elector has voted one clip merely.
The 2nd perceiver will purely forestall any elector from puting the ballot card in the box if the elector ‘s name is non marked on the printed list.
After puting a grade against the elector ‘s name on the printed list, the 2nd perceiver will
guarantee that the elector has placed his ballot card in the ballot box and he shall do certain that it fell inside it.
The 2nd perceiver will direct the elector to the gate marked “ Exit ” .
Figure ( 2-1 ) . Process Flow for Voting in Bahraini elections
E-democracy, a blend of electronic and democracy, comprises the usage of electronic communications engineerings, such as the Internet, in heightening democratic procedures within a democratic democracy or representative democracy.
Typically, the sorts of sweetenings sought by advocates of e-democracy are framed in footings of doing procedures more accessible ; doing citizen engagement in public policy determination doing more expansive and direct so as to enable broader influence in policy results as more persons involved could give smarter policies ; increasing transparence and answerability ; and maintaining the authorities closer to the consent of the governed, increasing its political legitimacy. E-democracy includes within its range electronic vote, but has a much wider span than this individual facet of the democratic procedure [ ] .
E-democracy is a big field of survey and there is no across-the-board definition Essentially, e-democracy relates to the on-line activities of authoritiess, elected representatives, political parties and citizen groups The web sites of these organisations have a assortment of maps, which include political or current personal businesss treatment, on-line audience between representatives and their components, or there can be a free and non-partisan forum for treatment by citizens [ ] .
Importance of this issue
E-democracy is a comparatively new construct, which has surfaced out of the popularity of the cyberspace and the demand to re-invigorate involvement in the democratic procedure. Citizens are more willing to utilize web sites to back up their campaigner and run thrusts. Time salvaging, efficiency of process and dependability are worthwhile [ ] .
Below are some types of e-democracy [ ] :
1. On-line audiences and political web sites online
On-line audiences or e-consultations refer to an exchange between authorities and citizens utilizing the Internet. They are one signifier of on-line deliberation. Further, on-line audience consists in utilizing the Internet to inquire a group of people their sentiment on one or more specific subjects, leting for tradeoffs between participants. By and large, an bureau consults a group of people to acquire their ideas on an issue when a undertaking or a policy is being developed or implemented, e.g. to place or entree options, or to measure on-going activities. This enables authoritiess to outline more citizen-centered policy.
As the Internet additions popularity with the populace for voicing sentiment, citizen engagement in policy development through internet is altering the face of democracy. The rise of the Internet has given manner to cants such as e-democracy, mentioning to citizen engagement in political relations, authorities issues and policy development through electronic engineerings and the Internet, and e-Government, refering to supplying citizens with authorities information and services online. Online audience is an extension of these constructs. Through on-line battle, authorities is enabled to keep synergistic
duologues with the populace as they have a more direct path to citizen sentiment via the Internet. Online audiences are likely the first measure taken by many authoritiess in making an e-democracy. About all authoritiess have made statute law, instance jurisprudence and other information available online.
Online e-democracy communities have been set up, which encourage engagement in the political procedure via the cyberspace.
Online audiences do non dispute traditional impressions of democracy in any important manner. Therefore, on-line audiences are more likely to be adopted than the more extremist direct vote signifiers of e-democracy [ ] .
E-voting combines engineering with the democratic procedure, in order to do vote more efficient and convenient for electors. E-voting ( or electronic vote ) allows electors to either ballot by computing machine from their places or at the canvassing station [ ] .
a ) E-voting at the polling booth
This signifier of e-voting is virtually the same as regular vote, but replaces the ballot paper with a vote machine or a computing machine. These machines / computing machines are merely connected to a private web and waiter while vote is traveling on or after the vote is done.
B ) E-voting online
The most advanced signifier of e-democracy would be voting online, which would let electors to project their ballots from anyplace there is internet entree. The Internet is viewed as a platform and bringing medium for tools that help to extinguish some of the distance restraints in direct democracy. Technical media for e-democracy can be expected to widen to mobile engineerings such as phones [ ] .
Examples of E-Voting implemented internationally
Electronic vote has been a hot issue for many provinces worldwide and recently some of these provinces implemented this as a replacing to their conventional electoral systems in pattern.
Brazil is a universe leader in electronic elections, holding conducted them since 1990. The elections in October 1998, was one of the largest electronic elections in history, with over 60 million electors projecting ballots by computing machine for local and national campaigners. 57 per centum of the voting population – voted electronically in elections for local, province and national offices. In conformity with Brazilian jurisprudence, an initial election affecting all campaigners was held in October, and a run-off election between the top two vote-getters for each office was held in November. When the consequences were tabulated, Brazil had
elected its President, 27 Senators, 27 Governors, and over 2000 province and local functionaries [ 50 ] .
2.5 Example of E-Voting in USA
The common thing about USA and Bahrain is the internet growing rate. Bahrain has shown a great ballyhoo in the growing of cyberspace and family computing machines recently and that ‘s what put Bahrain in equality with USA. As USA is ever been an illustration for cyberspace growing and Bahrain has shown an tremendous growing in Personal computing machines and internet growing rate recently. Though Bahrain ‘s growing rate can non be related to with USA ‘s growing rate straight but as USA is a prima state in the developed universe, Bahrain is one of the developing states who have been rather successful in execution of new engineerings for the benefits of its people. Comparison of Bahrain and USA in footings of population and cyberspace is shown on Table ( 2-1 ) [ 59 ] .
From Table ( 2-1 ) it is rather clear that Bahrain has a really impressive growing rate of cyberspace use and it is invariably increasing by the clip.
Table ( 2-1 ) . Comparison of Bahrain and USA in footings of population and cyberspace
( 2010 Est. )
( Year 2000 )
( Year 2010 )
( % Population )
It appears from the tabular array that there is no equality between the growing rate of USA and Bahrain but closely watching the behaviour of people following the new engineerings will state us that if one takes USA growing rate from 1990-2000 the growing rate was tremendous and after twelvemonth 2000 things are running steady that ‘s how Bahrain is working. At the minute the growing rate of Bahrain is tremendous but it will probably acquire steady in few old ages.
2.5.1 Old system of voting in USA
Traditional ways of vote had been in pattern in United States of America chiefly Lever Machines and Punch Cards. Documents were besides a major portion of this old system. It is shown in Table ( 2-2 ) .
Table ( 2-2 ) . Traditional ways of voting used in USA
Direct Recording Electronic
Voting Machine ( DRE )
2.5.2 Execution of e-voting in USA
During this clip, there have been 5 types of voting systems used: lever machines, clout cards ( including Votomatic and DataVote systems ) , optical scan, direct entering electronic ( DRE ) vote machines, and paper ballots.Typically, a vote legal power uses one type of vote system throughout the full legal power. Occasionally, a legal power uses more than one type of voting system during an election.
Following the 2000 U.S. Presidential election, in which the ability of certain voting systems to accurately enter the purpose of electors was questioned, U.S. Congress passed the Help America Vote Act of 2002 ( HAVA ) . Among the commissariats of HAVA was an allotment of financess for legal powers to overhaul their vote systems. Specifically, money was provided for legal powers to replace lever machine and punch card systems with electronic vote machine and optical scan systems [ 60 ] .
There was a demand of e-voting in USA from rather a long clip but there were some engineering jeopardies but eventually, in twelvemonth 2004 USA had its first National Elections observed through e-voting on a reasonably big graduated table.
The consequence of HAVA on voting system use is evident from the 17 % addition in the usage of electronic vote machines coupled with an 18 % lessening in the usage of clout cards between the 2000 and 2004 Presidential elections [ 60 ] .
Usage ratio of different voting systems in USA in elections is shown in Table ( 2-2 ) and Figure ( 2-2 ) [ 60 ] .
Table ( 2-2 ) . Usage ratio of different voting systems in USA in elections 2000 and 2004
Direct Recording Electronic
Voting Machine ( DRE )
Figure ( 2-2 ) . Usage ratio of different voting systems in USA in elections 2004
There were partial trials being carried out in different times in different provinces to look into the genuineness of e-voting e.g. [ 61 ] :
1. In Alaska in January 2000, 35 people voted via the Internet in the Alaskan Republican Party ‘s presidential straw canvass utilizing a watchword mailed to them in progress. Kathleen Dalton, a member of the Alaska Republican Straw Poll Committee said that “ Internet vote opens up a wholly new sphere to an Alaskan population that is handicapped by huge distances, deficiency of land transit paths, and decelerate or interrupted postal service in winter months ” [ 61 ] .
2. The Arizona Democratic Party was be aftering to offer Internet vote in its March 2000 adhering presidential primary. Security in this election appeared besides to trust on electors subscribing a signifier, get offing it in, and having by return mail a watchword that allows them the ballot any clip within a four-day period. A steadfast viing with the one running the election for the party declined to do a command for the election. They were concerned that party functionaries insisted on leting people to vote from place, and urged alternatively voting merely at canvassing Stationss, so poll workers could vouch the individuality of electors before allowing them cast ballots. They besides worried that the computing machines used might harbour viruses or other Trojan Equus caballus plans. The Voting Integrity undertaking has filed suit in federal tribunal against the Arizona program, stating it discriminates against minority electors. Noting that merely half of the families in the United States have Internet entree, the League of Women Voters has raised this issue besides [ 61 ] .
3. The Pentagon is scheduling a trial of abroad Internet vote in November 2000 utilizing 250 electors from five provinces and virus-free machines [ 61 ] .
A Study of USA ‘s Diebold systems
Diebold ( AccuVote-TS ) systems is one type of a Direct Record Electronic ( DRE ) Voting System, it is a voter-activated synergistic touch-screen system. Using a smart card as the elector mandate, the AccuVote-TS license electors to see and project their ballots by touching mark countries on an electronically generated ballot. Each unit provides a direct-entry computerized vote application that automatically records and shops appropriate ballot information and consequences. At the terminal of the vote period, the system can publish precinct sums to be included as portion of the lasting record.
The AccuVote-TS is supported by the Global Election Management System ( GEMS ) package, which provides ballot creative activity, ballot tabular matter, and coverage. The AccuVote-TS prevents the elector from over vote, notifies the elector of under vote, and allows the elector to reexamine and modify their ballot picks before projecting their ballot [ 67 ] .
Embedded with Windows CE, and C++ codification.
Color Touch screen, with GUI package.
Windows CE, and C++ codification stored on the Internal Memory and PCMCIA cards.
Internal thread pressman, and PCMCIA storage for records and audit tests. Additionally the GEMS waiter besides shops the ballots and audits.
Optional Audio constituent to help the visually impaired. “ Magnify ” characteristic to enlarge the text. I guess all Windows CE Accessibility characteristics are available on these systems.
Two GEMS waiters one primary and a backup, for every polling station, that connects to the voting units to “ lade the ballots ” and so voting units work independently. They are once more connected at the clip of consequences.
Security of Access
GEMS waiters have entree through Supervisory Smart cards, and PIN ‘s, some users have login and password entree.
Voter entree smart card is issued in an envelope for a terminus. Voter can set it in the assigned terminus and dramatis personae his/her ballot.
Storage of Votes
In a PCMCIA card hidden in the Voting Unit. Consequences are “ familial ” utilizing modems to the numeration centre.
Cost of the System
About 3300 $ .
Over 35000 ballots.
Supports more than 8 different linguistic communications utilizing GEMS package.
Individual provinces / counties buy the systems, and utilize it to take portion in elections, each province can make up one’s mind based on its jurisprudence, which system to follow.
2.5.3 Difference between Old and New Voting System in USA
There is a large difference in the old and new manner to vote. I can discourse the differences in four major facets:
In the old system the major ball of the system was done through Lever Machines. In these types of machines it was non automated and there were different levers for different picks and one can draw levers for the picks and one large Lever to do the pick functionary [ 60 ] .
In the new electronic manner of vote as discussed above the whole system is being automated, there are machines with screens and the individual can see picks on the screen and can choose the pick by pressing the right option [ 61 ] .
Old system was developed harmonizing to the demands of the clip. Lever machines, Punch cards and a really traditional manner of voting “ Paper ” was used to project ballots. The most advanced of them was the lever machines. In this people do n’t hold to make much work, merely see the options by drawing levers and select one option by drawing one chief Big Lever. Sounds easy but takes much clip. It has a job if there are many campaigners to vote for a Person could take long clip to caste his/her ballot which finally is a loss to the state [ 60 ] .
Diebold AccuVote-TS ( official name of USA ‘s e-voting machines ) is working really simple. To project a ballot, the elector foremost inserts her voter card. The machine validates the elector card and presents the elector with a user interface. It allows her to show her ballot by choosing campaigners and replying inquiries. After doing and corroborating her choices, the elector pushes a button on the user interface to project her ballot. The machine modifies the elector card, taging it as invalid, and so ejects it. After go forthing the
machine, the elector returns the now-invalid elector card to the canvass workers, who may re-enable it for usage by another elector [ 67 ] .
In the old system as the elector reaches the polling topographic point, there were usually three people at the desk by the door as the elector entered the topographic point, looking up references and voting territories. As the elector passes off he/she finds another four people at the other desk who were appointed to do certain there was no fraud and the elections were crystalline. After this the elector enters the booth and castes the ballot [ 60 ] .
Harmonizing to new system a elector arrives at the canvassing topographic point, he/she cheques in at a forepart desk where several canvass workers are stationed. The elector announces his/her individuality ( and provides whatever grounds of individuality is required by elections jurisprudence ) . The individuality is checked against a list of registered electors. Assuming the elector is registered and has non yet voted, poll workers record that the elector has voted. At this point the canvass workers give the elector a “ voter card, ” a particular smart card that signifies that the elector is entitled to project a ballot. The elector waits until the vote machine is free and so approaches the machine to project his/her ballot [ 67 ] .
There are many jobs, failings and issues with the traditional old system that was observed by United States of America. One of the major issues was the hold of election consequences. After all America had the jobs such as the miscount in Florida during the 2000 presidential election. If they had been relentless to the old system a greater contention could hold emerged. There were some jobs in the past such as electors doing mistakes while subscribing the ballot paper which means a useless ballot. There were different systems employed and they resulted in a higher cost on elections [ 67 ] .
The exposures of the new system are defined below [ 62 ] :
a ) Malicious package running on a individual vote machine can steal ballots with small if any hazard of sensing. The malicious package can modify all of the records, audit logs, and counters kept by the vote machine, so that even careful forensic scrutiny of these records will happen nil awry. We have constructed presentation package that carries out this vote-stealing onslaught.
B ) Anyone who has physical entree to a vote machine, or to a memory card that will subsequently be inserted into a machine, can put in said malicious package utilizing a simple method that takes every bit small as one minute. In pattern, canvass workers and others frequently have unsupervised entree to the machines.
degree Celsius ) Diebold AccuVote-TS machines are susceptible to voting-machine viruses ‘ computing machine viruses that can distribute malicious package automatically and invisibly from machine to machine during normal pre- and post-election activity. We have constructed a presentation virus that spreads in this manner, put ining our presentation ballot stealing plan on every machine it infects.
vitamin D ) While some of these jobs can be eliminated by bettering Diebold ‘s package, others can non be remedied without replacing the machines ‘ hardware. Changes to election processs would besides be required to guarantee security.
Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this chapter is to give an debut about the general research methodological analysis used in this survey together with specific tools used in informations aggregation and analysis. Besides this chapter discusses the methods to measure cogency and dependability of the research.