System Thinking And Project Management Information Technology Essay

The plus creative activity procedure outlines the indispensable activities and methods for overall executing of undertakings.

This provides for the blessing of range definition and executing of undertakings and form footing of preparation and initiation class for project executing section. Project portfolio ranges from confer withing surveies to technology, procurance, building and undertaking direction of contracts for the terminal user.

The rule is intended to supply a model, which will guarantee the certain minimal demands are met at the standards phase of the undertaking. This at the same clip leting the undertaking squad the flexibleness to analyze the item of the undertaking executing methods used to the peculiar undertaking.

The undertaking direction includes methods like planning, organizing, monitoring and control of all the facets of the undertaking in a uninterrupted procedure to accomplish the coveted end.

4.2.2 EMBEDDNG PROCESS

4.2.2.1 IDENTIFYING THE REAL Need

The demand is where the undertaking starts where the conceiver receives the demand from assortment of beginnings which are:

Statutory demands

Load growing

Customer demand or dependability

Audit study

Operation and care

Strategic appraisal on an environmental impact.

4.2.2.2 SCREEN PROPOSED PROJECT AND IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE

Screen the proposed undertaking and place alternate and this will be done jointly by all the stakeholders.

All the alternate solutions to the demand must be identified, the conceptual technology will be analysed for ONE of the alternate solution.

4.2.2.3 DETERMINE THE SCOPE OF CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING

Determining the range of the conceptual technology which should be established by stakeholder group.

The range should clear up the bounds of work to be performed.

Brief description of the technology work to be perform.

Specify who is making what by when ie function and duties.

4.2.2.4 HIGH LEVEL OF PROJECT SCHEDULE

The high degree undertaking agenda which will bespeak the full clip lines of the entire undertaking.

4.2.2.5 CONCEPTUAL Technology

The entire cost of the undertaking should be determined and the conceptual technology will be carried out by design subjects including the conceiver.

The end-results of the construct survey are the finding of existent undertaking solution.

4.2.2.6 INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

The result of environmental appraisal will be all the environmental impact consequences associated with the undertaking that bespeak how the undertaking will impact the environment. The determination on the undertaking have to hold to taken base on the result of the environmental study.

4.2.2.7 PROJECT REGISTRATION DOCUMENT

The papers should incorporate:

Description of the demand

Proposed solution

Options

Preliminary cost

4.2.2.8 REVIEW OF THE PROJECT TO CONFIRM THAT:

The conceiver ‘s demand has been met

The impact of the proposed undertaking on the bing or other undertaking and the environment has been look at.

The impact of the proposed undertaking or on other facet of future web planning.

All feasibleness options have been investigated.

4.2.2.9 ORDER OF MAGNITUDE ESTIMATION OF THE TOTAL PROJECT.

All the degree of elaborate cost estimation based on the strategy construct papers. The computations, premises, work breakdown construction etc used to get at he gauge should be noted clearly.

4.2.2.10 CRITICAL RECORDS

The records should be seeable for the referencing of the relevant information of the solution.

4.2.2.11 ESTABLISH PROJECT TEAM

The squad should be formed to reenforce and clear up the function and duties of each member on the undertaking.

4.2.2.12 PRODUCING OF ASSETS SPECIFICATION

This papers collects all the paperss related to the undertaking into a individual set of paperss through the definition stage.

4.2.2.13 Procurement

The procurance procedure is carried out under the conditions of all Contracts being approved and are used to supervise the all contracts deliverables.

4.2.2.14 Commission

The commissioning includes all the trials done after all equipments energised to the web system when the undertaking is completed..

4.2 QUIZ 2

4.2.1 Introduction

DECISION MAKING TO BUY A HOUSE.

What about one have to do a determination and even one time the determination has been made, it is subjected to one concluding impact assessment trial. In order to do a quality determination that means a quality procedure by which the determination is made.

In purchasing the house we have explored Multi-attribute Value Function in order to press out the uncertainnesss on the different options. This was because we had many conflicting aims that we wish to run into.

Our determination involved the reconciliation of a set different nonsubjective ; we considered the Location, Schools and Hospital etc.

The assorted Criteria which are really of import in doing determination have been develop utilizing the Multi-Attribute Value Function for turn toing the state of affairs and the weight is between 0-10.

Standard

Weight

Schools

10

Shops

6

Hospitals

8

work

5

The each determination options are been look at and evaluated how it is fare with regard to the Criteria that I have listed. A tabular array values is generated by measuring each combination of houses on sale and determination standards on a graduated table of 0 to 100.

Standard

Houses

House Angstrom

House B

House C

Schools

60

40

80

Shops

30

25

40

Work

25

50

30

Hospital

40

35

25

In order for one to do an of import determination, the application of the weight on each standard is required. Here are the undermentioned consequences:

House Angstrom

=

60X10 +30X6+40X8+25X5 = 1225

House B

=

40X10 + 25X6+50X5+35X8 = 1080

House C

=

80X10 + 40X6 + 30X5 +25X8= 1390

Taking into consideration the above analysis, the House C will be the appropriate pick which is got the highest overall value of 1390.

4.2.2 Decision

This was non the easy determination but after careful consideration with respect to our Decision Making tool that we used which gave us the hearty consequences.

The rules of Multi-Attribute Value Functions, the needed stairss were followed. The stairss include Identification of the determination solution, the standards which are of import in make up one’s minding which the best solution is. Delegate the importance weights to these standards by giving the most of import the top weight and burdening the other standards relative to this weight.

Every determination option, delegate a value or mark on each standard. Calculate the overall value of each determination option by multiply the value on each standard by the weight of that standard and adding up the entire across all standards.

4.3 QUIZ 3

4.3.1 Introduction

The reappraisal on the skill deficit in Eskom, accomplishments deficit is formless construct that that encapsulates many specific constituents, but in the bosom of the affair is the thought that the demand for certain accomplishments exceeds supply.

In the discourse of labour economic sciences, labour supply refers to individual who take part in the labour market with given gifts of human capital whereas labour demand refers to the private and specific entities that employ persons.

The generation of Eskom ‘s accomplishments policy government is elaborately linked to our state ‘s history. The bequest this presented in the labor market, and attempts station 1994 to better the unfairnesss of Bantu instruction. South Africa ‘s extremely isolationist geo-political and economic policies were substantively transformed in the democratic epoch, coercing Eskom to go more competitory and export oriented. This of frequently had the consequence of augmenting capital-intensive engineering alteration, otherwise bring oning a through reorganization of the signifiers and methods of production, with this end point skills deductions.

Critical accomplishments refer to a particular within an business. In Eskom context there are group of critical accomplishments: Generic accomplishments including job resolution ; larning to larn ; linguistic communication, literacy. Particular occupational accomplishments required for public presentation within the business.

4.3.2 THE POST 1994 POLICY ENVIRONMENT

By 1994 South Africa economic system had undergone broad spread alterations to its industrial construction and trade policy.

A more robust determination on alterations to employment overtime, nevertheless, has been the accomplishments bias technological alteration has been experienced. The deduction of this is that within-sector alterations in employment have about been more of import than between-sector industrial construction alterations when sing the nature of labour demand in South Africa.

Decline in the primary sector employment experienced at the same time as an addition that antecedently had the needed accomplishments to aptly execute their undertakings in the agricultural and excavation industries. By confronting a sector with deteriorating footings of trade and so hold to seek work in the third sector.

There are accordingly construction unemployment and may confront a much longer continuance of unemployment as a effect. This sort of a alteration has the possible to make a scarce accomplishments deficit, where both absolute and comparative deficit of third sector workers could be experienced.

Within Eskom alterations result from accomplishments biased engineering alteration. Here, new engineerings or methods of production are introduced by Eskom in an attempt to increase productiveness. At an single house degree this consequences in the demand to develop workers and this could ensue in a critical accomplishments deficit.

4.3.3 Demand FOR HUMAN RESOURCES

Reappraisal on demand for accomplishments chronologically. There has have been several studies of accomplishments in Eskom. Analyzing the demand for occupational employment prognosis demand for scarce accomplishments, concentrating on both net alterations in the occupational employment as one facet of future and replacement demand within each business ;

Demand for applied scientists and natural scientific discipline is strong.

It professions is in the high demand.

Demand for directors with fiscal and people accomplishments.

Demand for technicians and engineers.

Demand deficit of applied scientists from antecedently disadvantage background.

The accomplishments deficit in Eskom a cardinal constituent has been the recognition that all grades of accomplishments are of import, including highly-skills and lower accomplishments. At the same clip they have focussed on the interaction of the accomplishments development with the economic system development more loosely. The national system of invention in many ways biases the high-skills constituent of accomplishments development, it should be stressed that the upstream and downstream deduction of this does non needfully connote that merely high-skilled businesss should profit.

4.3.4 IMPLICATIONS Of SHORTAGE OF SKILLS IN ESKOM.

Eskom is the Centre of South Africa for Electricity supply. Eskom runs state electricity at the gait seeking to pull off the on traveling substructure upgrading undertaking. Eskom was so busy fixing and concentrating on the their substructure development programs forgot the fact that Eskom is faced with the deficit of accomplishments to run undertakings of such magnitude. The deductions in the state ‘s electricity would be enormous and merely if Eskom ab initio addressed the accomplishments deficit before implementing these programs. Eskom had relied on the foreign accomplishments to put to death the undertakings which turned out to pay a batch of money for foreign accomplishments. Merely a good prepared program and a carefully orchestrated executing program would salvage Eskom from a humiliation in forepart of the whole South Africa by non finishing these undertakings on clip.

4.3.5 THE PROJECT AS A SYSTEM OF INTERCONNECTING PARTS:

.

Reappraisal

DATA MANAGE-MENT

Change

Agenda

Hazard

MANAGE Stakeholders

Budget

Reports

West by south

Communications

Scope of work

FIGURE 1: Undertaking AS THE SYSTEMIC THINKING.

The undertaking had to take a figure of parts into consideration for the success of the undertaking system which some of them were ignored during the planning stage. All other above marks were difficult to accomplish eg at that place has been less budget to finance the on traveling undertaking etc. Eskom kept losing undertaking milepost doing the whole South Africa nervous about advancement of the undertakings.

4.3.6 THE CHALLENGES, SUCCESS AND FAILURES.

The particular socio-political environment in South Africa raised the first challenge that the direction of the stakeholders and the suggestion that unequal direction of the concerns of the stakeholders frequently leads to struggles and contentions about the execution of a building undertaking. Indeed, the terrible dissensions between Trade Unions, Public and the Government about the electricity terrific addition over the undertaking lead to serious holds of the undertaking. The opposing political parties accusal of non crystalline procurance methods, trigger more distrust among one of the most important stakeholders, the populace.

The premier duty was to ease the communicating between the stakeholders analysis their clashing positions. The undertaking directors should larn from this lesson and utilize the stakeholder matrix early on the undertaking ‘s life-cycle, a technique that emphasise “ cross-functional interfaces and relationship edifice and helps in placing the undertaking stakeholders and their influence on the assorted undertaking parametric quantities. Except from the stakeholder direction Eskom undertaking had to specify clear aims.

Minimal attempt

Keep satisfied

Key participants

Keep informed

Low

Power

High

Low Level of low involvement High

FIGURE 2 ABOVE: Stakeholder Function, POWER/INTEREST MATRIX.

The strategic aim was to pull foreign investing, to hike the exports and to reenforce the Tourism attractive force flows to South Africa. These primary aims had a direct impact on the programming, budgeting and hazard direction of the undertaking system.

The late start of the readying activities demanded a fleet solution. Eskom should hold introduced a theoretical account which the administration can utilize to pull off undertaking, and by driving an effectual profile velocity, which may differ from program one. It is apparent that fast execution undertaking direction was non considered as portion of the alteration direction. More workers need to be employed and higher overtime payments will be considered indispensable despite the excess cost that such a determination would add to the concluding budget. This is the typical tradeoff between two of the Fe trigon success standards clip and cost where in the most instances, the cost parametric quantity normally prevails. The same tradeoff form in building undertakings indicating out that this is a consequence of the realisation by the contractor and the proprietor of the terrible deductions os the agenda overproductions. In add-on, the important undertaking clip lost and tense force per unit area by kicked off an organisation-wide alteration in Eskom construction.

The alteration started with the replacing of the executive direction squad, placement of the undertaking title-holder. Together with alteration and clip, hazard direction contributed greatly to the budget addition. The deductions of the being of the important uncertainness about the degree of the undertaking public presentation accomplishable.

4.3.7 Decision: LESSONS AND OUTCOME

Despite all the job being encountered, Eskom direction should be able to give a sound reply to all the Cassandra ‘s that predict day of reckoning. Everything will be delivered non in clip and undertaking will keep in a secure environment with jobs.

In order to find whether the undertaking will be successful or non one has to do a differentiation between undertaking success ( measured against cost, clip and quality )

From the above analysis of the undertaking direction facets, deficit of accomplishments and clip was a large flag during the planning of Eskom substructure enlargement and Refurbishment undertaking.

4.4 QUIZ 4

4.4.1 Late Undertaking

A director should cognize his ain profile and cognize ain learning manner. He must besides cognize the learning manner of his co-workers, and understand how to use this to the best advantage for success of the undertaking.

The current procedure is such that it does non turn toing cultural differences across the working environment and develops one civilization for the whole section by making strong sustainable relationships with equals, spouses, squad members or clients from other civilizations or nationalities.

4.4.2 CURRENT STRUCTURE/STATE

General Manager

Project Execution Manager

Programme Manager

Undertaking Manager

Support staff

4.4.3 THE PROCESS

Issues in isolation of the entire operational environment badly limits a undertaking director ‘s ability to place an elegant solution.

The undertaking gets identified by the conceiver and gives to the undertaking Manager to run with it up to the close-up phase.

Once the undertaking has been identified, the undertaking director calls all the stakeholders for the Scope Definition procedure.

The Scope Definition procedure is where all the stakeholders including the Undertaking director and the conceiver define the range to be executed.

Once the range definition is concluded, the full relevant papers is being compiled for the blessing by the Investment Committee.

When the Committee approves the undertaking and the Commercial procedure take topographic point, where orders for needed equipment are being placed that includes the awarding of contracts by the Tender Committee.

The undertaking technology design and planning procedure besides takes topographic point after the undertaking is being approved.

The executing phase will get down one time all the above procedure is in topographic point. During executing this where most of the undermentioned challenges take topographic point:

Scope alteration

Designs reappraisals

Budget alteration

Undertaking clip extension

This above mentioned when it take topographic point it result to a undertaking being late.

It is clear that the above construction it does non conjusive working environment where holding an integrated results and positive motives and controlled emotions. Making beliefs in order to assist others understand the universe around them by constructing trust, to their heads with respect to belief in me and pull off trust.

The determination doing procedure does non suit every one else to lend and organize portion of doing concern solution. There is really small treatment the subsidiary can contributes and give a meaningful influence on what the direction has been given by the senior direction.

4.4.4 STRUCTURE/STATE SHOULD BE

Project executing director

Measure

Surveyor

Programme director

Support Staff

General Manager

Undertaking Leader

Undertaking Military officers

Undertaking director

4.4.5 THE Result

Once a director is able to place all the elements that constitute that environment will it be possible to place a sustainable solution to a specific job.

Most jobs on the undertaking do non be in isolation ; they turn to be a complex interaction between a figure of variables. The system attack enable the undertaking directors to derive the penetration into the context in which they have to run. This besides affords the manager/s an chance to come up with solutions that are constructive.

The above construction develops one civilization for the whole section by making strong sustainable relationships with equals, spouses, and squad members

This builds up the squad spirit where there is free flow of information, there are no boundaries. Anybody should be able voice out positive and constructive information to anyone she/she feels to portion with and that information is portion amongst co-workers on the correct platforms within the section.

The job can non be solved on an single footing as one position per solution is non plenty to entirely understand it. One demand to use many different positions.

There will be a corporate determinations being taken because the whole section was engaged in the procedure in happening what steps to taken to accomplish the existent challenge and the solution to the existent job.

In order to to the full run the manner in which undertakings work in the undertaking environment where job is seeable, the relationships between the squad must besides be understood.

4.4.6 THE Observation: AS IT SHOULD

Aim

Entire undertaking together with public presentation steps

Management of the undertaking

Undertaking environment

Resource of the undertaking

Components of the undertaking

The aims are realized merely to the significance of activity and both the activities and the effects need to be examined.

The environment includes all that lies outside the undertaking control. The undertaking can make comparatively small about the behavior of the environment as it frequently considered to be fixed and to be included to the undertaking job. The environment must include all that determines how the undertaking performs. The environment must be beyond the undertaking control and besides exercise some finding on the undertaking public presentation.

The resources are all the agencies available to the undertaking in the executing of the activities necessary for aim of the undertaking. Resources are inside the undertaking and they include all the parts that the undertaking can alter, this is non merely the people, equipment and money but besides the chance.

Peoples can be over-utilized, driven past their ability to get by successfully with their occupation, therefore doing the burnout.

Components are all those activities that contribute to the achieving of the undertaking objectives.

The undertaking direction is the maps of planning and command the undertaking. Planing a undertaking involves all facets of the undertaking antecedently encountered accomplishing its aim, its environment, use of resources, constituents and activities.

The observations are such that the effectivity of the procedure will alter the perceptual experiences of everybody in the whereby there will be effectual communicating within the working which will take to system attack.

The procedure has besides enabled those persons who are impacted by the challenges of single to derive a better apprehension of their function, duty and their influences in making a more conjusive/relaxed environment.

An unfastened system requires a manager/s who are able to accept positive unfavorable judgment from the subsidiary acknowledge the impression of take parting in a squad environment.

There will be alter the manner we making the Scope Definition and Approval procedure. The Scope should be clearly defined and should hold longer continuance. The debut of Design Review Committee before Approval procedure to look at Design specification and elucidation.

4.5 QUIZ 5

4.5.1 CHAOS-THEORY- MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. True

2

False

False

False

True

4

4.6 QUIZ 6

4.6.1 ERECTION OF 275KV X 150MARS CAPACITOR PROJECT

A director should take and command the procedure of undertaking from the beginning to decision. He must besides understand the undertaking squad, his co-workers, and understand how to use this to the best advantage for success of the undertaking.

The current procedure is such that it does turn toing cultural differences across the working environment and develops one civilization for the whole section by making strong sustainable relationships with equals, spouses, squad members or clients from other civilizations or nationalities.

4.6.2 THE PROCESS

An issue in isolation of the entire operational environment badly limits a undertaking director ‘s ability to place an elegant solution.

The undertaking gets identified by the conceiver and gives to the undertaking Manager to run with it up to the close-up phase.

Once the undertaking has been identified, the undertaking director calls all the stakeholders for the Scope Definition procedure.

The Scope Definition procedure is where all the stakeholders including the Undertaking director and the conceiver define the range to be executed.

Once the range definition is concluded, the full relevant papers is being compiled for the blessing by the Investment Committee.

When the Committee approves the undertaking and the Commercial procedure take topographic point, where orders for needed equipment are being placed that includes the awarding of contracts by the Tender Committee.

The undertaking technology design and planning procedure besides takes topographic point after the undertaking is being approved.

The executing phase will get down one time all the above procedure is in topographic point. During executing this where most of the undermentioned challenges take topographic point:

Scope alteration

Designs reappraisals

Budget alteration

Undertaking clip extension

This above mentioned when it take topographic point it result to a undertaking being late.

It is clear that the above construction it does non conjusive working environment where holding an integrated results and positive motives and controlled emotions. Making beliefs in order to assist others understand the universe around them by constructing trust, to their heads with respect to belief in me and pull off trust.

The determination doing procedure does non suit every one else to lend and organize portion of doing concern solution. There is really small treatment the subsidiary can contributes and give a meaningful influence on what the direction has been given by the senior direction.

4.6.3 CURRENT STRUCTURE

Project executing director

Measure

Surveyor

Programme director

Support Staff

General Manager

Undertaking Leader

Undertaking Military officers

Undertaking director

4.6.4 THE Result

Once a director is able to place all the elements that constitute that environment will it be possible to place a sustainable solution to a specific job.

Most jobs on the undertaking do non be in isolation ; they turn to be a complex interaction between a figure of variables. The system attack enables the undertaking directors to derive the penetration into the context in which they have to run. This besides affords the manager/s an chance to come up with solutions that are constructive.

The above construction develops one civilization for the whole section by making strong sustainable relationships with equals, spouses, and squad members

This builds up the squad spirit where there is free flow of information, there are no boundaries. Anybody should be able voice out positive and constructive information to anyone she/she feels to portion with and that information is portion amongst co-workers on the correct platforms within the section.

The job can non be solved on an single footing as one position per solution is non plenty to entirely understand it. One demand to use many different positions.

There will be a corporate determinations being taken because the whole section was engaged in the procedure in happening what steps to taken to accomplish the existent challenge and the solution to the existent job.

In order to to the full run the manner in which undertakings work in the undertaking environment where job is seeable, the relationships between the squad must besides be understood.

4.6.5 THE Observation

Aim

Entire undertaking together with public presentation steps

Management of the undertaking

Undertaking environment

Resource of the undertaking

Components of the undertaking

The aims are realized merely to the significance of activity and both the activities and the effects need to be examined.

The environment includes all that lies outside the undertaking control. The undertaking can make comparatively small about the behavior of the environment as it frequently considered to be fixed and to be included to the undertaking job. The environment must include all that determines how the undertaking performs. The environment must be beyond the undertaking control and besides exercise some finding on the undertaking public presentation.

The resources are all the agencies available to the undertaking in the executing of the activities necessary for aim of the undertaking. Resources are inside the undertaking and they include all the parts that the undertaking can alter, this is non merely the people, equipment and money but besides the chance.

Peoples can be over-utilized, driven past their ability to get by successfully with their occupation, therefore doing the burnout.

Components are all those activities that contribute to the achieving of the undertaking objectives.

The undertaking direction is the maps of planning and command the undertaking. Planing a undertaking involves all facets of the undertaking antecedently encountered accomplishing its aim, its environment, use of resources, constituents and activities.

The observations are such that the effectivity of the procedure will alter the perceptual experiences of everybody in the whereby there will be effectual communicating within the working which will take to system attack.

The procedure has besides enabled those persons who are impacted by the challenges of single to derive a better apprehension of their function, duty and their influences in making a more conjusive/relaxed environment.

An unfastened system requires a manager/s who are able to accept positive unfavorable judgment from the subsidiary acknowledge the impression of take parting in a squad environment.

There will be alter the manner we making the Scope Definition and Approval procedure. The Scope should be clearly defined and should hold longer continuance. The debut of Design Review Committee before Approval procedure to look at Design specification and elucidation.

Addressing cultural differences across the working environment and

develop one civilization for the whole section by Making strong sustainable relationships with equals, spouses, squad members or clients from other civilizations or nationalities. Showing an ability to suit accepts and esteem other ‘s learning manners. Individual ‘s dedication and committedness to the section. Confronting challenges with the positive attitude.

Willing to larn and accept alterations.

Having an integrated results and positive motives and controlled emotions. Making beliefs in order to assist understand the universe around us. Building trust, to their heads with respect to belief in me and pull off trust.

The leader must be able to steer through penchants to pull off people because penchants are what makes us different. Peoples can be classified by personality to find a individual ‘s penchant in footings of how he perceives and responds to state of affairss.