The industry in building could be considered as a full-blown industry in most developed and developing states, where the pattern of building has been dated back since the earliest civilisation of human sort. Nowadays the building industry is really witting towards the importance to heighten the procedure of incorporation, planning and control in the phase of design and besides building on site. In the traditional method of the building procedure, edifices are erected on site from all the elements and constituents casted on the structural base which is called unmoved procedure. While sing an designers, who design the edifice from the abrasion, are non precisely understand the building means and method, this happening leads towards the jobs in world of building where it will be realized merely in the field while building the edifice. The jobs include hold, retracing the same constituents, hapless quality production and even legal muss. Recognizing the immense complications go oning in the field of building, many parties are sourcing out for the best solution to smooth out the procedure of edifice system. Concentrating on this issue, the construct of constructability is seen as one of the suited method for the solution of decomposition during the design phase, drag into the phase of building, and eventually on the phase of edifice care. This construct allows the professionals such as contractors or undertaking supervisor to hold an early engagement in the design procedure to portion their cognition and expertness in the purpose to bring forth the design that will ease the procedure of building and care which conformity to the demand of clients. However, on the range of system execution, the constructability construct is seen to make issues towards the design geographic expedition of the designers and besides the opposition of the cost where the system execution will necessitate a immense figure via the use of high engineering operations.
This paper will explicate the execution of Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) to be the medium for constructability construct and to hike out the procedure of building on site. The system as a modern-day construct adopted in the edifice building procedure will be introduced in this paper and few elements of package engineering to give assistance in the execution of the system. More significantly, the application of Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) will be analyzed on the managerial point of position to further detect the invention of engineering in giving benefits towards directions effectivity for Construction Industry. With a particular observation on the instance in Malaysia, this paper will besides touch on the barrier and trials of the system towards the edifice squad and the intercession from authorities organic structures with the mark to accomplish better development of the state.
Construction INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA
The universe has witnessed a monolithic development in building sectors in Malaysia over the past few decennaries. With the addition in local population resulted from the pattern of migration from sub-urban country to the capital metropolis of Kuala Lumpur, and the rise of exiles figure working in Kuala Lumpur, it resulted in high demand for residential infinite in the locality to the work topographic point. The encouragement in Malayan economic system has besides influenced more investors to affect in this state which indirectly give a great impact on the edifice landscape of Kuala Lumpur.
Late modern and postmodern architecture began to look in the late-1990s and early-2000s. With the economic development, old edifices such as Bok House have been razed to do manner for new 1s. Buildings with all glass shell appear around the metropolis, with the most outstanding illustration being the Petronas Twin Towers and Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. ( 1 )
In concurrence to this phenomenon, building industry in Malaysia is seen to undergo certain development to be able to vie with the planetary development in the purpose to accomplish the vision 2020 as a developed state.
Construction Industry development Board ( CIDB ) was incorporated as a authorities organic structure to be responsible for the sector of building in Malaysia. Since many building undertakings are handled by private associations, CIDB is trusting to undertake the field and educate the edifice squad on the pattern of latest construct in building procedures which includes the Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) .
2. Development OF IBS
Definition of IBS
The industrialized edifice system ( IBS ) could be described as such all structural elements for case columns, beams, walls, floors and roofs are massively produced either in an offsite mill or in a impermanent constructed mill at site. The edifice constituents under IBS technique are produced in huge Numberss harmonizing to specifications with standardize forms and dimensions. Those constituents are so transported to the site of building undertakings to be assembled into a construction without undergoing normal wet building processes with a massy formwork modeling the construction. Those constituents are erected on the construction and decently joined to make the needed form of the edifice.
The execution of IBS has taken topographic point rather a long clip ago in the building industry. The building of Eiffel Tower in Paris dated on 1887 could be considered as a building method utilizing the system of IBS. The building period of that tower took merely two old ages for design, constituents fiction, and to piece. The tower was met with much unfavorable judgment from the populace when it was built, with many naming it an eyesore. ( 2 )
The construct of IBS has been good accepted since many states experience the demand to supply the people with compatible yet accepted value residential. The authorities through CIDB has encouraged the edifice squad to follow the construct of IBS a an alternate system to the conventional method.
IBS is defined as a building system in which constituents are manufactured in a mill, on or off site, positioned and assembled into construction with minimum extra site work ( CIDB, 2003 ) . Dietz, A.G.H ( 1971 ) earlier defined IBS as entire integrating of all subsystem and constituents into overall procedure to the full utilizing industrialized production, transit and assembly techniques. Lessing et Al, ( 2005 ) defined IBS as an incorporate fabrication and building procedure with good planned organisation for efficient direction, readying and control over resources used, activities and consequences supported by the used of extremely developed constituents. ( 3 ) IBS has been interpreted in many different definitions. However, it is surely clear that the IBS system includes the mechanism of hardware and besides package programme
The package programme grips on planing the system, which include complex processs of analysing the demand of terminal user, survey of the market, advancement of unvarying edifice constituents, confirmation of fabrication procedure and methods of accretion, allotment on stuffs and resources and creative activity of guideline for constructing design construct. The programme offers a cardinal idea to make the advantageous environment for farther consideration in the edifice design. It includes the engagement of computing machine aided design ( CAD ) & A ; computing machine aided fabrication ( CAM ) .
While hardware elements are classified into three different divisions. These include column and beam constituents, plane of panel constituents, and besides three-dimensional constituents. The above descriptions are pictured to explicate the chief construct of IBS as a technique for edifice building which uses structural constituents that are manufactured in a to the full supervised environment ( on or off site ) , transported, positioned and assembled into a construction with minimum extra site plants. ( 4 )
Features of IBS
It is likely to reexamine the indispensable features foregrounding the executing of Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) . The characteristics are briefly elaborated as below.
Components are produced through prefabrication method, which is classified into two classs, which are prefabrication based on the design from clients and prefabrication based on the maker ‘s design. This system of execution can merely be justified in cost consideration when few factors are observed. First, the undertaking is immense plenty to enable distribution of costs over the excess cost per constituent incur due to high engineering engagement and extremely mechanised unmoved procedure in the constituents prefabrication and assembly. Second, the edifice design consumes big sum of perennial constituents in standard size and form. This system works good in the happening of sufficient demand for typical constructing typology such as infirmary and school.
This system allows greater flexibleness in footings of design and form for the edifice with maximal dialogue between the interior decorator and maker. Through this execution, it allows maker to manufacture a limited sum of constituents with a preapproved scope of elements and at the same clip keeping the aesthetical value of the design.
Modular coordination is a standardised system for infinite dimension, edifice elements, structural constituents etc. so the merchandises could be precisely fixed without any farther extension or decrease during assembly even though the merchandises are prefabricated by different maker.
In response to the modular coordination, edifice constituents need to be designed in standard signifier before production. Such system requires tolerance in every stairss of building such as fabrication, puting out, and on site assembly to synchronise the overall facets.
The huge figure of cost necessity in the high engineering and complicated procedures, professional experts and comfortss associated with the system could merely be justified financially when big figure of constituents ‘ ingestion are practiced. After all, IBS is a methodological analysis which drives local building industry towards the acceptance of an integrated and encourages cardinal participants in the building industry to bring forth and use pre-fabricated and aggregate production of the edifice at their work sites. ( 6 )
Huge merchandise fabrication in standard formation allows large undertaking for specialised labor undertaking. In this state of affairs, labors are exposed to a insistent work with a high degree of end product.
3. APPLICATION OF IBS SYSTEM
IBS in Malaysia
Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) has been introduced to get by with a turning demand of low-cost lodging, work outing issues associated with foreign workers and bettering image, quality and productiveness of building related services in Malaysia. ( 7 ) This construct has begun in early 1960 ‘s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European states and measure their lodging development plan ( Thanoon et. Al. 2003 ) . After their successful visit in 1964, the authorities had started foremost undertaking on IBS purposes to rush up the bringing clip and built low-cost and quality houses. ( 7 ) Construction industry in Malaysia is undergoing monolithic alterations and undertakings today are far more ambitious than of all time before. Large ingestion of capital investing, complex systems and processs, rigorous agendas and rigorous quality demand give great challenge to the edifice squad involved.
The landscape of Malayan Economy has significantly affect clients ‘ organisation and undertakings managing. The building growing rates in Malaysia fluctuates between appendages that varies from every bit high as 21.1 per centum in 1995 to every bit low as -24 per centum in 1998. ( 7 ) Since the 1990 ‘s, the part of the building sector to the GDP besides fluctuated albeit at a more stable rate changing from a high of 4.8 per centum in 1997 to an estimated depression of 2.7 per centum in 2005 ( CIDB, 2008 ) . ( 7 ) This fact explains the direct interrelatedness between demand for building and developments of economic system in many major sectors in Malaysia. The drastic alterations in demand for building industry has urged Malayan Government to outline out building development programmes which in the ulterior old ages, Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) has proposed few indicants including Modular Coordination ( MC ) , Standardisation, Quality Assurance, IT in Construction, and Research and Development where all of these will hold close contact with engineering execution.
Since 1998, CIDB has been actively advancing the usage of IBS in the local building industry. The contractors are to work as “ assembly programs of constituents ” alternatively of “ builders ” . ( 8 ) Today, the execution of IBS System in Malayan Construction Industry is turning. Many private companies in Malaysia have teamed up with foreign expert to offer pre-cast solution to their undertaking ( IBS Survey 2003 ) . ( 9 ) Besides, local makers have been endeavoring to set up themselves in the market. Components of pre-cast concrete, steel framing and other IBS elements were applied as merger building to construct main roads, bowls, Lightweight Railway train ( LRT ) and skyscrapers such as Petronas Twin Tower and KL Tower. Nonetheless, Malayan authorities still believes the executing of IBS system demand to be farther adopted based on the immense potencies. Below graph shows the degree of IBS use in Malaysia between 1999 to 2002. ( 8 )
Degree OF IBS USAGE
The graph above shows companies without IBS execution in building undertakings were marked to be bit by bit worsening from 1998 ( 74 % ) to 2002 ( 48 % ) . Clearly more companies are get downing to accept the usage of IBS in their undertakings. The figure of companies that utilized IBS in 81 % to 100 % of their undertakings besides recorded a steady addition. ( 8 )
4. Impact OF IBS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Benefits of IBS
Government plays a critical function in constructing development industry in Malaysia, with the escape of one million millions of ringgit since the system was foremost introduced. This is go oning based on the world that IBS promises monolithic positive facets towards constructing building. It includes the features of the system execution that requires low volume of site workers due to the simplified method for on-site building. It is due to the fact that constructing constituents of IBS are automatically installed utilizing Cranes at site that does non necessitate many workers. Hence, the demand for foreign workers to manage the building undertakings could be reduced. This is precisely the mark of Malayan authorities to diminish the sum of foreign workers in building industry non merely because it will take towards less societal job in this state, but besides controls the escape of ringgit to foreign economic sciences.
By the pattern of IBS system, edifice constituents could be manufactured in a high quality control in footings of the exact dimension, form, mixture, strength, visual aspect and value. This is because the procedure of constituents ‘ prefabrication in the mill ( on-site or off-site ) have been consistently controlled and purely supervised to bring forth the best quality without any agitation from upwind status or other facets. Construction site will see decrease in extra stuffs because when most of the structural constituents are prefabricated in mill, fewer stuffs needed to assist the procedure on site.
Another obvious difference between the executing of IBS system and traditional method is on the usage of conventional lumber formwork. Under traditional method, timber formwork is usually used in the initial phase of building to model the edifice constituent and is considered as portion of wet-construction phase. With IBS system, undertaking site will non be undergoing that phase which resulted in cleansing agent and better status for farther phases of building. It will besides assist in decrease of props for early building procedure that usually consumes immense country in the site for storage. All of these are so resulted in the decrease of building wastes, which provides a better environment of the site with an addition in safety control.
Taking the construct of Lego plaything as an illustration, the attack of IBS construct is cheering to offer faster completion of building undertakings. With the pattern of lone constituents assembly on site, the procedure for building will rush up utilizing o little Numberss of worker. On top of these benefits of IBS, building costs could be made comparatively inexpensive when a big Numberss of constituents managing are taken into consideration.
Towards directions effectivity
The acceptance of IBS system among building houses in Malaysia is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. This is a positive effect after the authorities has laid off few indicants to advance the usage of IBS methodological analysis that will perfectly give better public presentation for any organisation in building industry. Despite of those benefits of the system use mentioned before, there are facts and figures back uping the statement as of the chart below.
Labor Cost Comparison between Conventional In-situ ( CIS ) and IBS Construction Method ( 10 )
Figure above shows the information of the labours that are involved in each undertaking and the rewards of the labour for the survey that was done. It is of import that the labour cost be studied as it is a large impact to the overall cost of the undertaking.
Contractors say that utilizing IBS will necessitate on-site specialised accomplishments for assembly and hard-on of constituents and this leads to higher cost use on skilled workers. However from this parametric quantity survey of Comparison between IBS Method and Conventional Method it is shown that the conventional method costs at site is much higher than those of IBS. This is because it involves tonss of machinery such as excavators, Cranes, back holes, surfs and etc. Other than the labour cost and the machinery cost, the lone cost that is high is the bringing of the constituents to the site of the undertaking.
Productivity Comparison between CIS and IBS Construction Method ( 10 )
( MANHOUR/M3 )
Chart above shows the consequence of the productiveness of these three undertakings. The comparing made is by manhour per volume of concrete. In this survey, for Cast-In-Situ building method, the building productiveness is merely on site building because the constructions are constructed from the activity of formwork fiction until the activity of formwork dismantles. These activities are chiefly carried out at the building site. The material transits or bringing of stuffs does non impact the productiveness of CIS method that much. As in the chart above, the productiveness can be compared in two ways: include and exclude the transit period of CIS.
For the instance of excepting transit productiveness for CIS, it is due to merely bringing of stuffs such as the bringing of sand, sums, support saloon, ply wood etc for CIS undertaking site. Harmonizing to this survey, the analysis for the Pre-cast building method begins with the fabricating procedure in the pre-cat mill. And, this does non take into consideration of the bringing of natural stuff to the mill.
From the survey it could be analysed that the execution of IBS system is better than the conventional method where it reduces figure in the cost of building procedure when it is applied proportionate to the initial investing incurred in the undertaking.
5. Defect OF IBS
Even though IBS offers many intelligent end products and is considered smart system to bring forth common growing of building industry in Malaysia, many stakeholders and edifice direction squad still shy off to follow the system into being. ( 10 ) After a drawn-out premeditation, CIDB came up with the list of factors impacting to the holds of IBS system execution.
Since IBS was foremost introduced in Malaysia in 1960s, the term for this system is frequently misinterpreted with negative perceptual experience as it portrays the building design of the past decennaries. ( 10 ) These designs are associated with mass prefabricated production constituents in standard form and size, low quality edifices, abandoned undertakings, unattractive architectural projection and few other unpleasant penetrations which lead to bad feeling about precast concrete among populaces.
Many findings analysed little contractors are loath to implement the system of IBS and instead favour to go on utilizing the traditional method for building. It is a affair of fact that they are really familiar with the traditional method and they think that it suits good with the little graduated table undertakings and hence non lament to alter to a new mechanised system. ( 10 ) The other factors impacting the deficiency of engagement is on fiscal side. Small buildings usually do non backed by immense fiscal aid which prevent them to put up fabricating workss as it requires monolithic capital investing.
Lack of understanding in prefabricated constituents among building squad besides gives impact on the slow execution of IBS system in Malaysia. Especially for civil applied scientists, topic of prefabricated concrete engineering is non delivered to the undergraduate pupils in many universities. ( 10 ) The same happened on the topic of building engineering.
As explained in the old chapter, IBS system can offer a more efficient building procedure based on its advantages in velocity of building, simpler procedure and decrease in manhour. However the challenge is to supply a operable IBS system that is advanced and yet acceptable to all parties involved in building industry. The facets of standard constituents industry should be incorporated in the system.
IBS system will be making good with the assistance of heavy and particular equipment such as Cranes. Consequently it requires a high initial cost to put up mill works and besides transit costs which lead to decrease of net income border. It is disclosed presently that acceptance of IBS system would non assure outstanding cost cutting particularly in the little building undertakings. ( 10 ) However, IBS has proved the salvaging in building period and less labour aid will be able to pay back the monolithic investing incurred in the cost of building.
Regardless of the benefits, many contractors are still dubious to implement the system of IBS. As a affair of fact, many of the contractors are non prepared to offer for building stamps utilizing IBS system. ( 10 ) The monopoly of large male childs which restricting chances to little contractors have besides contributed to the defect where this group have ne’er given a opportunity to acquire exposure on the execution of IBS system. ( 11 ) With the fluctuated economic conditions and deficiency of consciousness on IBS system make the scenario even worse where developers will experience loath to use the system into pattern which tie ining latest engineering and mechanised system.
Of the findings stated above, it is understood that the major grounds why contractors shy off from the IBS system are as follows: –
The little figure of makers set up their operations in Malaysia ensuing in domination in the market hence offer high monetary values on the fiction of the constituents. ( 10 )
Characteristic of human being where it is normal for transition from traditional method to new engineering execution will necessitate a period of clip to be acknowledged.
Attitude of delay and see where developers need clip to see physical groundss such as accomplished undertakings of the other companies ‘ developments in order to admit the benefits ( either short term or long term benefits in the facets of building cost, clip & A ; care ) .
Changing in building method will necessitate some immense investing from stakeholders therefore will set the undertaking into some degree of hazard to set up the net income border of the building.
The pattern of IBS system will take to the loose of advantage of using untrained labor with inexpensive rewards. Contactors tend to take for cheaper method of building in the facet of labor rewards, and some of them may hold invested a batch to convey in this inexpensive labor from abroad and it takes clip to retrieve their investing.
6. CONCLUSION & A ; RECOMMENDATION
The engagement from all parties such as the universities, companies, organisations and research institutes right from the beginning of the phase to make research and development ( R & A ; D ) of IBS undertaking will assist to guarantee that there will be plenty survey done on the capable affair to turn out that IBS system is plausible to be applied on any of local undertakings. This will finally alter the point of view of the developers and contractors to exchange from conventional method to IBS method. Government ‘s intercession will besides be really utile to play function such as backing standard demands for contractors to utilize at least certain per centum of IBS system in their undertakings as a rigorous policy towards the usage of foreign labour. This is due to the specific purpose of the authorities to cut down the figure of foreign worker in Malaysia,
It is besides utile to carry on surveies on cost comparing between traditional method and IBS to further edify the benefits of IBS system in the long-run footing. Exposure on the cardinal elements of the system of IBS towards the unity and rigidness facets ( such as safety issue ) would besides be necessary for contractors where structural constituents could be made available in the mill and economically acquired through IBS execution.
In relevancy to the fact that the entire figure of makers of prefabricated structural constituents in Malaysia is really low in Numberss, ( 10 ) more mills should be raised up to make fabricating on edifice constituents based on IBS system so that the issue of high monetary value para could be undertaken and opens up for more options for contractors to get edifice constituents in their building undertakings.
With the aid of CIDB as the authorities ‘s agent to convey the common benefits of IBS to be practiced in the industry, it is besides recommended for CIDB to give inducements for contractors who adopt IBS. It could be in many different attacks such as allotment of more undertakings or income-tax discounts for them who adopt the engineering of IBS.
With the invention of engineering and the assistance of computing machine system execution during design phase with many available package in the market, ready to truly visualise the mentality, edifices can be designed in such a manner that portraying world of the IBS system even during the planning phase. In concurrence with the computing machine promotion implemented in the architectural design, use of IBS system has shown huge development in footings of building public presentation and design facets. It can be concluded by and large that the use of IBS in Malaysia is acquiring more popular and about one tierce of the undertakings completed from 1998 to 2002 used IBS in one signifier or another. ( 5 ) The term IBS could possibly be changed from Industrialised Building System to Intelligence Building Solution which reflects innovativeness and better image. ( 9 )
The acceptance of IBS system is a smart indicant to further better local building industry in the purpose of accomplishing greater development for the state of Malaysia, therefore doing it better compatible in the international degree. IBS system warrants to promote all facets of the industry to a high degree of standard and professional representation. IBS should be renowned as the solution of value for money. This would be a great step to alter client ‘s perceptual experience of past failure and bad architecture which sturdily associated with IBS.