The Core Feature Of Information Systems Information Technology Essay

Information System and Information Technology has become the nucleus characteristic for many concern successes in the Earth. IT applications are largely used to assist organisations to make its twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours work and to derive competitory advantage while cut downing competitory disadvantage and to run into other concern aims which organisations need. Harmonizing to Ross and Fenny ( 1999 ) , in the mid of 1980s, they have identified the IS/IT as a key arm which helps to accomplish the competitory advantage for any organisation. Besides Ward and Daniel ( 2006 ) has stated in their book of Benefits Management that in the last four decennaries at that place was a immense IS/IT demand for organisations to run into its demand to accomplish the competitory advantage. Furthermore Ward and Daniel ( 2006 ) , mentioned that with the early phase of IS/IT acceptance helps to automatize some everyday activities to cut down the efficiency and cut down the cost while presenting a good operational procedure with a good merchandise.

Harmonizing to Croteau and Bergeron ( 2001 ) ; Kearns and Lederer ( 2000 ) ; Zhang and Lado ( 2001 ) cited in Garg, Joubert and Pellissier ( 2005 ) p.33, mentioned that applications which are support to accomplish the competitory advantage referred to as the strategic direction information engineering and it helps to accomplish the best concern public presentation for the organisations. Harmonizing to Burn and Martinsons ( 1997 ) ; Ho ( 1992 ) ; Wiseman ( cited in Henry and Pun ( 2000 ) , stated that it is possible to carry through the fight of companies by utilizing new chances which offered to the house by strategic information systems. Buhalis ( 2004 ) , has mentioned in his research paper about e-airlines, that air hoses have been puting to a great extent for Information Communication Technology since the 1950s and they have used the IS/IT as a competitory tool to accomplish their concern marks. Besides he has mentioned some illustrations that, in 1962, the American Airlines introduced its SABER computing machine reserve systems as an alternate solution for their old manual informations come ining system spread outing its Boeing fleet by 50 % .

Harmonizing to the web site, with the immense concern growing the IS/IT has given more impact to those concerns and mean while there is a immense development in IS/IT systems. Strategic planning helps the organisations to place their IS application and its Information Technology which support to derive the competitory advantage over other rivals. Strategic planning is a tool which support for the forming portion for the present on the footing of the projections of the coveted hereafter. Information engineerings are progressively regarded as strategic resources of an organisation. Indeed it is a possible usage of IS/IT as a competitory arm has become a popular cliche .

Besides the Management drama an of import portion of an organisation. Its chief function is to unite people together in order to carry through accomplishable ends. Management mobilize or allocate resources to different section like Human resource, Finance, IT section, etc. and form these resources in such a manner that organisational strategic ends are accomplished easy in the long tally. Management besides takes critical portion in planning, forming, taking and commanding. It gives way, aligns and achieves organisation ends with available resources. As shown in the web site, there are three different types of degrees available in direction hierarchy. Those are categorized as strategic, tactical and operational. To acquire the maximal benefit out of the company concern intelligence, the organisation needs to hold all three degrees – strategic, tactical and operational – working in concurrence with one another. Harmonizing to Steiner ( 1979 ) , in the function of direction scenario, chiefly the strategic degree is more of import and it is the highest degree and normally done by senior direction degree. Basically the determinations on the aims, perpetrating money, employee and clip are done within this strategic degree. Tactical be aftering degree it does the execution of the strategic program phases such as combine the available resources and reexamine options. Within the operational degree, it is much more elaborate of strategic and tactical degrees. In this degree the directors chosen to work the program develop a specific program to put to death the strategic program. Therefore the direction function and the IS/IT schemes are playing a immense function to derive the competitory advantage.

As stated in Srilankan Airlines one-year study ( 2009 ) , their IT division affecting and giving immense support function to all sections in the Srilankan Airline during a twelvemonth of multiple alterations. Srilanka Airlines IT section is an independent section within the organisation. Therefore it is an entity as a portion of the procedure to aline all divisions with the corporate scheme in an IT position and it is assisting the full organisation to profit from modern engineering and better their procedures and productiveness while deriving competitory advantage. However harmonizing to Porter ( Cited in Clarke 2001 ) p.114, mentioned that, he has proposed to derive the competitory advantage ; the house must be based on one of three generic schemes. Those are categorized as distinction, cost leading and the focal point. Sing the Porters distinction scheme, the Srilankan Airlines has provided greater client convenience through check-in installations on Mobiles was completed. This nomadic installation is chiefly focal points on the Srilankan Airlines clients. Comparing with other air hoses, the Srilankan Airline has been utilizing the distinction scheme in their organisation. Therefore farther probe is required to place whether the function of direction engagement is truly good to accomplish the competitory advantage utilizing IS/IT or non.

Sing all these general factors which mentioned in the above paragraphs, it is clear that function of direction engagement and IS/IT engagement are the chief cardinal factors of deriving competitory advantage for any organisation. Therefore this research is carried out to happen whether the same constructs which have been described in above paragraphs can use to the Srilankan Airlines to accomplish competitory advantage while comparing with the general findings.

6.0 Literature Review

6.1 Introduction

IS/IT have revolutionized the full concern universe. So far the organisations derive the competitory advantage using engineering to their industry. Largely the competence will be mutable among the rivals base on their IT use and the engagement of function of direction. The air hose industry in peculiar has fostered a dependence on IS/IT for their operational and strategic direction. Airlines were early adoptive parents of Information Systems & A ; Information Technology and have a long history of technological invention, in comparing to many other concern industries. ( Buhalis 2004 ) . IT applications are largely used to assist organisations to its twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours work and to derive competitory advantage while cut downing competitory disadvantage and to run into other concern aims which organisations need.

Following subdivisions describe about what is competitory advantage and how the organisations achieve competitory advantage utilizing IS/IT with engagement of direction functions.

6.2 Competitive Advantage

As stated in web site, if a company likely able to do a net income in surplus of its cost of capital, because it has achieved a competitory place which offers some of and inch over its possible challengers. To accomplish such a competitory border, it typically takes the preparation and executing of concern scheme. To develop a competitory advantage, the company must possess value making activities which can non be duplicated by any other organisation. Harmonizing to Day and Wensley ( cited in website 2010 ) , mentioned that two sets of beginnings are at that place which involved in making competitory advantage. Those two are categorized as superior accomplishments and superior resources. As proposed by Porter ( 1985 ) , that to derive the competitory advantage, the house must be based on one of three generic schemes. Those are categorized as distinction, cost leading and the focal point. The distinction means that whatever the merchandise should be different from other sellers and the cost leading makes house to bring forth the merchandises in lower cost. This will assist to increase the net income borders to the house. Focus means that the houses must concentrate about the present market and necessitate to place where are they comparing to other sellers and eventually based on the computation they must execute better than other rivals utilizing their accomplishments and cognition. In some other manner Treacy and Wiersema ( 1995 ) , proposed another popular generic model for deriving competitory advantage. Within this model, ‘a house typically will take to stress one of three “ value subjects ” : merchandise leading, operational excellence, and client familiarity ‘ .

Operational Excellence

As suggested by Ward and Peppard ( 2002, p.112 ) , Operational Excellence means ‘enabling merchandises and services to be obtained faithfully, easy and cost-efficient by clients ‘ . With this competency-based scheme it implies a concern scheme which can make better betterment to the organisation than other rivals and be able to present both cost-efficient and dependable quality of client contentment.

Merchandise Leadership

Further to Ward and Peppard ( 2002, p.114 ) , merchandise leading means ‘continuing merchandise invention meeting clients ‘ demands. This scheme implies non merely creativeness in developing new merchandises and heightening bing 1s, but besides sharp market cognition to guarantee that they sell. ‘

Customer Intimacy

It has been argued ( Ward and Peppard 2002, p.113 ) , that the Customer Intimacy indicates ‘targeting markets really exactly and orienting merchandises and services to the demands of peculiar client groups. The intent of here is non merely to fulfill but to delight clients by understanding their demands and run intoing them on every juncture. This can be evidently being expensive but it can construct long-run client trueness ‘ .

However farther to Porter ( 1985 ) , he has specify a frame work theoretical account call ‘Five Forces ‘ diagram which capture the chief thought of porters theory of competitory advantage. The five forces theoretical account defines the regulations of any sort of competition in any industry. Further to Porter, these five forces determine industry profitableness. Besides the five forces frame work point out that what is most of import and it helps organisation to capture their marks for long-run advantage. The five competitory forces are typically shown in the undermentioned diagram 1.0 ;

Diagram 1.0: Porter ‘s Five Forces – Elementss of Industry Structure

Beginning: Porter, ( 1985 ) , p.6

The aggregation of strength of the five forces can be varies from industry to industry. In the interim the strength each of the five forces besides can alter. Further to Porter and Miller ( 1985 ) , stated that information engineering can change the five forces to the industry attraction. The Five Forces model high spots what is of import and directs director ‘s towards those facets most of import to long-run advantage of the organisation. Harmonizing to Porter ( 1985 ) , has explained the Five Forces elements as follows ;

Dickering Power of Suppliers

The term ‘suppliers ‘ comprises all beginnings for inputs that are needed in order to supply goods or services. There are several elements for Supplier dickering power is likely to be high.

The market is dominated by a few big providers instead than a disconnected beginning of supply,

There are no replacements for the peculiar input,

The providers clients are fragmented, so their bargaining power is low,

The shift costs from one provider to another are high,

There is the possibility of the provider incorporating forwards in order to obtain higher monetary values and borders. This menace is particularly high when

The purchasing industry has a higher profitableness than the provision industry,

Forward integrating provides economic systems of graduated table for the provider,

The merchandise is uniform and can be replaces by replacements,

Switch overing to an alternate merchandise is comparatively simple and is non related to high costs,

Customers have low borders and are monetary value sensitive,

Customers could bring forth the merchandise themselves,

The merchandise is non of strategically importance for the client,

Menace of New Entrants

The competition in an industry will be the higher, the easier it is for other companies to come in this industry. In such a state of affairs, new entrants could alter major determiners of the market environment ( e.g. market portions, monetary values, client trueness ) at any clip. There is ever a latent force per unit area for reaction and accommodation for bing participants in this industry. The menace of new entries will depend on the extent to which there are barriers to entry. These are typically

Economies of graduated table ( minimal size demands for profitable operations ) ,

High initial investings and fixed costs,

Cost advantages of bing participants due to see curve effects of operation with to the full depreciated assets,

Brand trueness of clients

Protected rational belongings like patents, licences etc,

Scarcity of of import resources, e.g. qualified adept staff

Entree to raw stuffs is controlled by bing participants,

Distribution channels are controlled by bing participants,

Existing participants have close client dealingss, e.g. from long-run service contracts,

The purchasing industry hinders the providing industry in their development ( e.g. reluctance to accept new releases of merchandises ) ,

The purchasing industry has low barriers to entry.

Dickering Power of Customers

Similarly, the bargaining power of clients find how much clients can enforce force per unit area on borders and volumes. Customers dickering power is likely to be high when

They buy big volumes, there is a concentration of purchasers,

The provision industry comprises a big figure of little operators

The provision industry operates with high fixed costs,

High shift costs for clients

Legislation and authorities action

Menace of Substitutes

A menace from replacements exists if there are alternate merchandises with lower monetary values of better public presentation parametric quantities for the same intent. They could potentially pull a important proportion of market volume and hence cut down the possible gross revenues volume for bing participants. This class besides relates to complementary merchandises. Similarly to the menace of new entrants, the dainty of replacements is determined by factors like

Brand trueness of clients,

Near client relationships,

Switch overing costs for clients,

The comparative monetary value for public presentation of replacements,

Current tendencies.

Competitive Rivalry between Existing Players

This force describes the strength of competition between bing participants ( companies ) in an industry. High competitory force per unit area consequences in force per unit area on monetary values, borders, and therefore, on profitableness for every individual company in the industry. Competition between bing participants is likely to be high when

There are many participants of about the same size,

Players have similar schemes

There is non much distinction between participants and their merchandises, hence, there is much monetary value competition

Low market growing rates ( growing of a peculiar company is possible merely at the disbursal of a rival ) ,

Barriers for issue are high ( e.g. expensive and extremely specialised equipment ) .

Above mentioned forces determine the strength of competition and hence the profitableness and attraction of an industry. At the primary degree, houses create competitory advantage by comprehending or detecting new and better ways to vie in an industry and conveying them to market, which is finally an act of invention. Inventions shift competitory advantage when challengers either fail to comprehend the new manner of viing to react. There can be important advantages to early movers reacting to inventions, peculiarly in industries with important economic systems of graduated table or when clients are more concerned about exchanging providers. Some of the typical causes of inventions which shift competitory advantage are categorised as follows:

new engineerings

new or switching purchaser demands

the outgrowth of a new industry section

switching input costs or handiness

alterations in authorities ordinances

Over the past two decennaries, researches have proposed several strategic models to place the IT applications that are likely to supply competitory advantage. It is of import to place the difference between IS, IT and information and the generic benefits of IS/IT as good. Therefor the followers will discourse about the IS/IT schemes and how it good for the concern sector.

6.3 IS/IT Schemes

It has been argued by Clarke ( 2001 ) , p.115, that information ‘s base on ballss mediate persons and groups with a given societal environment. Information systems may place as a system which supports and enable to go through within the specific environment. Distinguish between IS, IT and information ‘s and the manner its nexus with each other is demoing in the undermentioned figure 1.1.



Information Systems


Information Technology

Figure: 1.1 The Nature of Information Technology, Information Systems and Information

Beginning: Clarke ( 2001 ) , p.116

There are several benefits which can be gained from IS/IT. Harmonizing to Farbey ( cited in Ward and Danniel, 2006 ) , stated that there are five elements included in the organisational construction. Following table 1.2 shows the five elements of and organisation and its description.

Organizational Structure Elementss



Includes people charged with overall duty for the organisation ‘s way


Includes in-between directors who operate in order to transform the strategic vision into operational world


Refers to people who perform work related straight to the production of merchandises and services


Includes people who serve the organisation by impacting others ‘ work


Includes people who provide support for the organisation outside the basic production of goods or services. These are frequently specialist in certain subjects.

Table: 1.2 The five elements of an organisation

Beginning: Ward and Daniel ( 2006 ) , p. 7

However table 1.2 shows that there is important Numberss of benefits can use to the direction and to the organisation which helps to derive the important development. As argued by Ward and Daniel ( 2006 ) , the strategic benefits are more involved in concern organisations development and to develop a new concern theoretical accounts where IS/IT play a chief function. As stated by Ferbey et Al. ( cited in Ward and Daniel 2006 ) , the term of direction describe about the activities of in-between direction in an organisation. These director degrees operate concern unit degrees and take determination devising and besides responsible for the development of their staff members. Further to Farbey et Al. ( cited in Ward and Daniel 2006 ) , the operation benefits are classifieds in to goods and services which any house provides. The chief mark is to acquire a worthy end product which is distinguishing from other sellers. While holding a good operational benefits and giving it to the clients, the company can derive more benefits while deriving competitory advantage. Besides in functional and support benefits, it identifies certain activities which are support for the nucleus activities which relate to company production of the goods and services.

At the degree of scheme execution, the houses perform distinct activities – gestating new ways to carry on activities, using new processs, new engineerings, or different inputs. As suggested by Porter ( 1980 ) , the value concatenation is a systematic manner of analyzing all the activities a house performs and how they interact. It scrutinizes each of the activities of the house ( e.g. development, selling, gross revenues, operations, etc. ) as a possible beginning of advantage. The value concatenation maps a house into its strategically relevant activities in order to understand the behavior of costs and the bing and possible beginnings of distinction. All the activities in the value concatenation contribute to purchaser value, and the cumulative costs in the concatenation will find the difference between the purchaser value and manufacturer cost.

A house additions competitory advantage by executing these strategically of import activities more cheaply or better than its rivals. One of the grounds the value concatenation model is helpful is because it emphasizes that competitory advantage can come from anyplace along the value concatenation. It is of import to understand that how a house fits into the overall value system and it should include the value ironss of its providers, channels, and purchasers.

Porter ( 1996 ) physiques on his thoughts of generic scheme and the value concatenation to depict about the scheme execution in more item. Competitive advantage requires that the house ‘s value concatenation be managed as a system. Positioning picks determine non merely which activities a company will execute and how it will configure single activities, but besides how they relate to one another. This is important, since the kernel of implementing scheme is in the activities – taking to execute different activities than challengers. A house is more than the amount of its activities. Further to Porter ( 1996 ) , a house ‘s value concatenation is an mutualist system or web of activities which has connected by linkages. Linkages create tradeoffs necessitating optimisation and coordination.

Porter ( 1986 ) , has describes three picks of strategic place that influence the constellation of a house ‘s activities:

Variety-based positioning – based on bring forthing a subset of an industry ‘s merchandises or services ; involves pick of merchandise or service assortments instead than client sections. Makes economic sense when a company can bring forth peculiar merchandises or services utilizing typical sets of activities. ( i.e. Jiffy Lube for car lubricators merely )

Needs-based positioning – similar to traditional targeting of client sections. Arises when there are groups of clients with differing demands, and when a trim set of activities can function those demands best. ( i.e. Ikea to run into all the place trappings demands of a certain section of clients )

Access-based positioning – segmenting by clients who have the same demands, but the best constellation of activities to make them is different. ( i.e. Carmike Cinemas for theaters in little towns )

Porter ‘s major part with “ activity function ” is to assist explicate how different schemes, or places, can be implemented in pattern. The key to successful execution of scheme, he says, is in uniting activities into a consistent tantrum with each other. A company ‘s strategic place, so, is contained within a set of trim activities designed to present it. The activities are tightly linked to each other, as shown by a 1.3 diagram of kinds. Fit locks out rivals by making a “ concatenation that is every bit strong as its strongest nexus. ” If competitory advantage grows out of the full system of activities, so rivals must fit each activity to acquire the benefit of the whole system.

Figure 1.3 Activity Map

Beginning: Porter, Harvard Business Review ( 1996 )

Porter defines three types of tantrum:

simple consistence – first order tantrum between each activity and the overall scheme

reenforcing – 2nd order tantrum in which distinguishable activities reinforce each other

Optimization of attempt – coordination and information exchange across activities to extinguish redundancy and otiose attempt.

To pull off all these IS/IT schemes within the organisations and to accomplish the competitory advantage, the direction functions are besides playing a immense function within the organisation. The undermentioned subdivision will speak about the degrees of Management functions and how it supports to derive the competitory advantage for the organisation.

6.4 The Role of Management

To accomplish the competitory advantage, the Management degrees besides contribute enormously. Efficient IS/IT systems enables direction to coordinate, organise and to command with a good program. It gives information needed for strategic planning and for twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations. Therefore senior executives, strategic contrivers and information system directors are progressively looking frontward to acquire the usage of IS/IT to accomplish the competitory advantage. To turn out this, there are several accounts in recent tendencies. Bakok and Treacy ( 1986 ) , has identified that the underutilization of IS/IT as a serious job for both IS/IT and for organisation concern directors. The chief ground to contract down to the IS/IT base competitory advantage are senior directions ignorance of IS/IT and its possible usage and the hapless communications among the groups who deals with IS/IT and the remainder of the concern squads. Besides the opposition to alter among both IS/IT and concern personal and a deficiency of focal point about the chances are some serious grounds which organisations are confronting.

Harmonizing to White ( 2009 ) , there are three different of direction degrees are included within the direction hierarchy. These different degrees are categorized as strategic, tactical and operational. Harmonizing to web site, when in a strategic degree, administrations must pull off entire demand whilst they get new substructure, engineering or accomplishments. At the tactical degree the purpose is align resources to heighten client value in the most profitable manner. Operational degree, the direction aims to supply dependable bringing public presentation within supply restraints. Geting the balance right between strategic, tactical and operational determinations will hold any concern powering in front.

Harmonizing to Gerber ( 1995 ) , strategic determinations play a biggest function in the concern. Its determinations focus typically external to the concern oriented and its determination devising make forward push in the concern. This strategic concern will include the undermentioned points.

What concern are you in?

What is your vision for the concern?

What ‘s your concern ‘ individuality?

What do you stand for?

Which way is the concern headed?

How will the concern compete?

Besides Gluck, Kaufman and Walleck ( 1982 ) , have suggested that strategic direction in most companies evolves along similar lines, by changing rates of advancement from the basic fiscal up to overall strategic direction model. Besides the strategic determinations force direction to entree the effects of present determinations and do the alterations as needed and to take company to accomplish it marks.

The 2nd major function is the tactical determinations. This involves the constitution of cardinal enterprises of the overall scheme. Further to Gerber some illustrations we can take as, if organisation decided to be the figure one supplier among the concern rivals, so the organisation must develop tactics such as implement a selling system to accomplish that result. This tactical determination is the sphere of any concern mission.

Further to Gerber ( 1995 ) , the following degree is the operational determinations which determine how activities really acquire done. This determination is chiefly about who is traveling to make what and when. This will include the undermentioned footings:

How will Organization pass their money this month?

How will the company service that client?

What is companies ‘ process for presenting an order?

Who will be making quality control?

If an organisation is doing determinations affecting procedure and processs, so these can place as an operational determinations. Specially operational determinations are made in existent clip and do speedy accommodation to accomplish the coveted result.

Besides harmonizing to Abdi and Sharma ( 2007 ) , stated that strategic and tactical direction functions are playing immense function within the flight operation managing while utilizing information systems. When we consider such an operation, there ca n’t be any little error. Even a 1 incorrect determination will take to a immense job in air hose industry. Therefore it is really clear that the direction determinations are really of import when organisation trades with IS/IT. As stated by Boseman, Phatak and Schellenberger ( cited in Vardrajan & A ; Clark 2002 ) , direction functions are process with concerned with finding the future way of an organisation and implementing determinations based on the purpose to accomplish organisation long and short term aims. Within every house the nature of control alterations with the degree of direction. Exceed degree direction is chiefly concerned about the issues which relate to strategic control. The lower degree direction is look after the operational issues.

7.0 Methodology

The undermentioned subdivisions present research methods that are utilizing for this research undertaking.

7.1 Selection of an appropriate research method ( s )

Following subdivisions present a brief description of few research methods. Besides this subdivision explains the grounds to choose those methods for this research undertaking.

7.1.1 Description of Research Methods

Case Study Research: Harmonizing to research worker Yin ( 1984, p. 23 ) , the Case survey research method is defined as an “ empirical enquiry that investigates a modern-day phenomenon within its real-life context ; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are non clearly apparent ; and in which multiple beginnings of grounds are used ” . Besides the instance survey includes observations, questionnaires. Besides each organisation has alone characteristic and chiefly the Case surveies are used to place such characteristics and to demo how they affect the execution of systems and how it influences the organisations.

Action research: Harmonizing Emroy ( 1980 ) , mentioned that, like Action research methodological analysis is chiefly necessitate to be flexible and adaptable due to break in the program and may non run into the demands of everyone involved. Besides it is non good known or accepted in calculating and information systems.

Survey Research: This method is used by the research workers when they want to garner informations from some happening which is non possible to execute a direct observation.

Experimental Research: When we consider the Experimental Method, it is largely depend on the experiments on a new technique or attack and have to compare the consequences against those obtained utilizing the by and large accepted technique or attack. Therefor it seems this research method takes more clip and the consequences will change with each organisation ( Emroy 1980 ) .

7.1.2 Proposed Research Method ( s ) for this survey

Matching the above mentioned properties of the research methods with this research undertaking, instance survey is the best research method that can be used.

Primary and secondary information has to be used for this research undertaking. Secondary informations will be used acquire the theoretical facets of function of direction and competitory advantage. As the secondary beginnings, diary articles, books, research documents, on-line articles and conference documents. To roll up informations from those published stuffs, a through literature study has to be conducted.

Besides to analyze the practical facets of the function of direction on accomplishing competitory advantage through IS/IT within the Srilankan Airlines, a field research needs to be carried out. Facts about Srilanka Airlines such as how there IS/IT supports to the concern operation, what is the IS/IT soaking up degree in Srilankan Airlines and how they supposed to accomplish competitory advantages will be derived via the field study.

7.2 Collection of Datas

In the first phase a basic literature study has been carried out to acquire the initial facts aggregation. For that published stuffs will be used. Theoretical background of competitory advantage and function of direction will be covered through the literature study. Besides it helps acquire much wider position of the state of affairs.

To roll up informations in the field study, two methods are supposed to utilize viz. : questionnaire and interviews. Initially questionnaire will be given among big figure of staff members of the organisation and effort get an overview of the state of affairs. As the following measure structured interviews will be conducted with the selected set of staff members. Interviews will assist to acquire more penetration to the current state of affairs.

7.3 Analysis of Findingss

Sing the nature of this research undertaking qualitative and quantitative analysis methods have been selected. Datas that derives through the questionnaire will be analysed by a quantitative method and the descriptive informations will be analysed via qualitative methods. Because most of the informations that collects for this research undertaking are descriptive. So qualitative method besides needs to be utilized. Consequently both quantitative and qualitative methods has to be used for informations analysis. As the first measure to the analysis, research worker has to break up the natural information in to different groups which can be easier to analyze. After grouping the natural information, research worker will be able to set up those groups in to some forms and through that research worker can deduce the tendencies and interrelatednesss between informations groups. So researcher has to go on this procedure till he can get the consequences that was expected from the research.

Analysis stairss for this specific research have been listed below.

Form the natural information in to groups or classs

Label the classs or groups

Identify the forms which can be drawn by comparing and contrasting the information groups.

Originate the common findings about the job

Taking common findings in to account and bring forth the set of usher lines

8.0 Evaluation

Evaluation is categorised in to two degrees. One is merchandise rating and the 2nd one is process rating.

8.1 Product Evaluation

The merchandise rating is to verify what is delivered. Expected out comes has been defined in the deliverables and deliverables are originated based on the research inquiries. Based on the purpose research inquiries are originated.

All the research inquiries were formulated based on the purpose of this research and findings of this research will be compared with the overall purpose whether they tally or it is congruous with the overall purpose and deduce the deliverable.

To look into the truth of the deliverables, the research worker will confer with an academic practician.

After the completion of the research work, researcher will once more confer with an academic practicians help to verify the truth of the research work.

8.2 Process Evaluation

To hold a successful research, there has to be a well-planned procedure. There are several cardinal activities within the procedure rating. These are categorising as Research Methodology, Data Collection, Analysis and Report coevals. All these are given in below:

The procedure of this research will be expected to follow which already explained in the subdivision of methodological analysis after seeking the advice from the academic expert.

Researcher has to look into the credibleness of the collected informations while consult the advice from an academic expert. Besides there will be a research inquiries test with few people as a pilot tally to verify that research worker can acquire the believable replies which helps to success this research work purpose.

On completion of research work, the analysis of informations will be assessed by academic expert and after that the study coevals besides continuously assessed and verify by the academic expert.

Besides to transport out a success full research work, the research worker has to hold some accomplishments and qualities and should be able to measure those accomplishments and qualities while placing the countries of strength and failings. As stated by Bigam ( 2008 ) , the bellow chart 1.2 shows these accomplishments and qualities.

Figure: 1.3 Skills and Qualities which helps to win

Beginning: Bigam ( 2008 ) , p.10

Skills and qualities of the research worker have been identified based on the Bigam ( 2008 ) , accomplishments and qualities chart. The self-discipline, listening, proficient degrees are up to the satisfactory degree. However the organisation and Time-Management accomplishments need to better. Further to make a good research work, the research worker has identified his qualities such as self-motivation and assurance are besides up to the criterion.

9.0 Probationary Agenda

10.0 Initial reading list