The Methods And Study Design Health And Social Care Essay

Because of high prevalence and planetary load, Intestinal parasitosis is a main public wellness concern worldwide, peculiarly in the development states where these infections are preponderantly linked with rapid urbanisation, hapless healthful status, famine of safe H2O and unequal hygiene patterns [ 1 ] Furthermore, the deficiency of consciousness and cognition about the manner of transmittal of the parasites and therefore improper patterns in this respect by members of a family in general and female parents in peculiar contribute a high proportion in this respect [ 2 ] . Another of import determiner for transmittal of infections is the clime, with warm and humid clime of Torrid Zones and semitropicss easing larval development in the dirt [ 3 ] . Harmonizing to the WHO, around 3.5 billion people are infested with some type of parasites and 4.5 million of these people are ill [ 4 ] . Children are most normally affected [ 4, 5 ] .

It has been estimated that the most common anthelmintic parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichura [ 2, 4 ] infect 1,450 million, 1,300 million and 1,050 million people worldwide [ 6 ] . It is common for a individual person, particularly a kid from a underdeveloped state, to be inveterate infected with all three worms. Such kids have malnutrition, growing acrobatics, rational deceleration, and cognitive and educational shortages. The chronic infestation with all the three worms occurs in a individual individual, at the same clip, finally taking to malnutrition, growing acrobatics, rational deceleration and cognitive and educational shortages. [ 3 ] .

There are assorted paths of transmittal for enteric parasites. They may perforate the tegument or be acquired if contaminated dirt is ingested accidently. Some parasites live in animate beings, such as hogs and cattles. Depending on the type of parasite, a individual may go infested by touching his or her oral cavity after contact with fecal matters that contain the being ( when altering a nappy or making laundry, for illustration ) or a contaminated country. Parasites can distribute when a individual eats contaminated nutrient ( such as common natural fruits or veggies, which can transport parasites from the dirt or from people who have handled them ) or drinks H2O contaminated by fecal matters. Swiming in contaminated H2O besides may ensue in infestation by certain parasites. Bing familiar with different path of transmittal, one can interrupt the rhythm of transmittal and hence can diminish the figure of instances enduring from this extremely burdened status.

Preventive chemotherapy ( i.e. , repeated disposal of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations ) , is the pillar of commanding enteric parasitosis. This scheme, nevertheless, does non forestall reinfection [ 7 ] . There is a demand for frequent anthelminthic drug disposals to maximise the benefit of preventative chemotherapy [ 7 ] .However frequent drug disposal without working on the preventative schemes, is neither cost effectual nor can play major function in diminishing the prevalence or load of the disease.


A figure of epidemiological surveies have been conducted in Pakistan to gauge the prevalence of the disease, to stratify the overall hazard factors associated with Intestinal parasitosis among kids and the frequence and form of infestation. [ 2, 8-10 ] However no survey has been explicitly performed in measuring maternal cognition of and perceptual experience about the disease province and preventative steps in Pakistan. Surveies on maternal consciousness carried out in other states have shown a positive correlativity between maternal behaviour and parasitic infestation among their kids. [ 6, 11 ]

Maternal patterns and family status can rectify the disease prevalence. Therefore cognizing about maternal current cognition and consciousness position, wellness publicity and instruction schemes can be formed and therefore contribute to decreasing the load of the disease.


Assess the cognition of female parents sing enteric parasitic infections and infestation

Analyze their patterns sing enteric parasitic infection.

Methods and Study Design:

Operational definitions:

Cognition: In this survey it refers to the appropriate response from female parents to points in the questionnaire about significance, causes, clinical characteristics, direction of worm infestations

Awareness: In this survey it refers to the reactivity of female parents and their patterns about bar of Intestinal parasitic disease through family patterns.

Intestinal Parasitosis: inhabitancy of the & A ; Acirc ; Intestines by parasites. & A ; Acirc ; These Parasites can populate throughout the organic structure, but most have a penchant for the enteric wall. Meanss of exposure include: consumption of undercooked meat, imbibing septic H2O, and skin soaking up. Helminthes and Protozoa are the two chief types. *

Helminthes: Parasitic worms that are transmitted through contaminated dirt. These include Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria and hookworm ( ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus )

Study design: A cross sectional study would be conducted on four suitably selected wellness centres of Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi Pakistan. These include Community wellness centre of AKUH, Garden Health centre, Rehri Goth wellness centre and Sultan Abad wellness centre. By choosing these four wellness centres adult female from diverse background, demographics and educational degree could be interviewed and therefore consciousness and cognition about enteric parasitosis could be matched.

Study topics and survey scene

Womans with one or more kid in the selected age group ( 2-15 old ages ) sing any of the above mentioned wellness centres.

Inclusion standards

All married adult female with one or more kid of age 2-15 old ages.

And who are sing the aforesaid wellness centres.

Exclusion standards

Womans, who do non hold a kid, aged 2-15 old ages.

Health Personnel

Study period:

The survey would be conducted from April boulder clay May 2013.

Sampling Methodology

A sample size of 385 was calculated presuming a prevalence of 50 % for maternal Knowledge, and Awareness sing anthelmintic infections or infestations, a 95 % assurance interval and a sample mistake of 5 % . Convenience sampling was used to pull the sample for this study. All accepting persons, sing the above-named wellness centres of Karachi between 9am to 5 autopsy and falling in the inclusion standards will be interviewed.

Data aggregation: Information would be collected utilizing interviewer administered questionnaire. The Questionnaire would be structured and pre-tested. Pretesting would be done on female parents falling into the inclusion standards and sing a similar scene, to test for possible jobs in the questionnaire and questionnaire would be discussed and translated into Urdu linguistic communication and any other local linguistic communication applicable earlier informations aggregation to diminish interviewer prejudice.


The questionnaire would consist of two subdivisions.

Demographics including


Sexual activity

Number of kids between 2-15 old ages of age

Education degree.

Monthly income

Area of abode

Entire no of family members


Possible manner of transmittal of helminthes,

preventative steps,

clinical marks and symptoms and

complication including morbidity and mortality.


Questions on manus lavation and general hygiene patterns

Waste disposal and latrine installation

Questions on Food hygiene patterns ( rinsing veggie and fruits )

Use of poached H2O and safe imbibing H2O.

Ethical Consideration:

Blessing for our questionnaire will be sought from the Aga Khan University & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s Ethical Review Committee, before the start of informations aggregation. The names of the participants will be neither asked nor revealed. All informations collected would be extremely confidential and will non be shared with any other individual except for the chief research worker. All participants will be free to abandon the survey as per their wants. The participants will non be attracted towards the survey by assuring them material benefits. The consequences of the survey will be assembled and shared either as a publication paper in a diary or a newspaper article. It may besides be presented in different forums as a posting presentation

Datas Analysis: Data entry would be carried out utilizing Epiinfo package and the informations would so be exported to SPSS ( Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ) for statistical analysis. Data entry will be done by two people individually to look into for any disagreements.