Understanding Leadership within Self and Organization

This study intends to analyse the writer ‘s function within the organisation that he is working for every bit good as place the leading qualities that he posses & A ; the qualities he would wish to work towards bettering. This study besides highlights the writers understanding of assorted leading theories & A ; theoretical accounts.

Leadership definedaˆ¦

There is no clear phrase specifying leading, many writers have given varied definitions into what Leadership means, but most frequently leading requires a mix of all these different definitions. In general Leadership is a procedure by which a individual influences others to carry through an nonsubjective and directs the organisation in a manner that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northouse ‘s ( 2007, p3 ) definition – ” Leadership is a procedure whereby an single influences a group of persons to accomplish a common end. ” This theory can be supported by statement made by R. J. House, who goes on to state leading is “ the ability of an person to act upon, motivate, and enable others to lend toward the effectivity and success of the organisations of which they are members ” .

No affair how one defines leading, it typically involves an component of vision. A vision provides way to the influence procedure. A leader can hold one or more visions of the hereafter to help him/her to travel a group successfully towards this end. Leaderships carry out this procedure by using their leading cognition and accomplishments. This is called Process Leadership. However, we know that we have traits that can act upon our actions. This is called Trait Leadership, in that it was one time common to believe that leaders were born instead than made. These two leading types are shown in the chart below ( Northouse, 2007, p5 ) :

“ Good leaders are made non born. If you have the desire and self-control, you can go an effectual leader. Good leaders develop through a ne’er stoping procedure of self-study, instruction, preparation, and experience. ” ( Jago, 1982 ) .

To animate your workers into higher degrees of teamwork, there are certain things that must be, cognize, and, do. These do non come of course, but are acquired through continual work and survey. Good leaders are continually working and analyzing to better their leading accomplishments ; they are non resting on their awards.

Organization & A ; Self

The writer works for an Insurance company that is both transnational & A ; local, the ground for that being the chief two stakeholders of the company ; one is a local banking group while the other is a globally outstanding insurance supplier. The writers company ‘s recent aim has been to go the chief insurance service supplier in Sri Lanka. Within this organisation the writer works in one of the cardinal channel spouse groups which are besides known as the “ Bancassurance ” arm of the company. The writer believes that there are two of import keys to effectual leading.

Harmonizing to a survey done by ( Lamb, McKee, 2004 ) .Found that:

Trust and assurance in top leading was the individual most dependable forecaster of employee satisfaction in an organisation.

Effective communicating by leading in three critical countries was the key to winning organisational trust and assurance:

Helping employees understand the company ‘s overall concern scheme.

Helping employees understand how they contribute to accomplishing cardinal concern aims.

Sharing information with employees on both how the company is making and how an employee ‘s ain division is making – relation to strategic concern aims.

The writer would wish to discourse the leading abilities portrayed by the writer within the organisation. Although the writer is non within the managerial degree of the organisation, the writer has shown leading qualities by working independently. As an illustration the during the writers first twelvemonth with the company, due to sudden surrender of most squad members the writer had to accomplish the old ages mark with merely another squad member. The terminal consequence being a success.

The writer has the following as his function within the organisation.

Coordinating & A ; doing certain that most of the squad members are cognizant of the set monthly, hebdomadal, aims.

Pull offing relationships with bank directors to develop new concern.

Following up with clients & A ; relationship edifice.

Making certain monthly marks are met.

Besides in the undermentioned tabular array the writer would wish to foreground the leading qualities & A ; traits the writer has & A ; does n’t hold:

Strengths

Failings

Interpersonal accomplishments

Communication Skills

Sing all possibilities

Motivated

Monitoring & A ; Coaching staff/team members

Not Aggressive

Some times portrays low ego regard

Excessively chatty

Opportunities

Menaces

Have clip to develop accomplishments

Can larn from past

Hope of acquiring better with current Degree

Lack of Focus

Lack of support from organisation

Excessively much independency, sometimes de actuating.

Besides a usage of the leading accomplishments questionnaire ( Introduction to Leadership, Northhouse P.G, pg 81-82 ) the writer was able to place & amp ; find where the leading strengths every bit good as failings were. The consequence of it was that the writer scored extremely in the administrative accomplishments & A ; was in the low scope for interpersonal & A ; Conceptual accomplishments.

Leadership Traits & A ; Attributes.

Fictional character and Traits in Leadership

To be an effectual leader, your followings must hold trust in you and they need to be sold on your vision. In any organisation, a leader ‘s actions set the gait. This behaviour wins trust, trueness, and ensures the organisation ‘s continued verve. “ One of the ways to construct trust is to expose a good sense of character composed of beliefs, values, accomplishments, and traits ” ( U.S. Army Handbook, 1983 ) :

Skills are the cognition and abilities that a individual additions throughout life. The ability to larn a new accomplishment varies with each person. Some accomplishments come about of course, while others come merely by complete devotedness to analyze and pattern.

Traits are separating qualities or features of a individual, while character is the sum sum of these traits. There are 100s of personality traits, far excessively many to be discussed here. Alternatively, we will concentrate on a few that are important for a leader. The more of these you display as a leader, the more your followings will believe and swear in you.

Traits of a Good Leader

Honest – Display earnestness, unity, and fairness in all your actions. Deceptive behaviour will non animate trust.

Competent – Base your actions on ground and moral rules. Do non do determinations based on childly emotional desires or feelings.

Advanced – Set ends and have a vision of the hereafter. The vision must be owned throughout the organisation. Effective leaders envision what they want and how to acquire it. They habitually pick precedences stemming from their basic values.

Inspiring – Display assurance in all that you do. By demoing endurance in mental, physical, and religious staying power, you will animate others to make for new highs. Take charge when necessary.

Intelligent – Read, survey, and seek challenging assignments.

Fair minded – Show just intervention to all people. Prejudice is the enemy of justness. Display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings, values, involvements, and wellbeing of others.

Unshockable – Seek out diverseness.

Brave – Have the doggedness to carry through a end, irrespective of the apparently unsurmountable obstructions. Expose a confident composure when under emphasis.

Straightforward – Use sound judgement to do a good determinations at the right clip.

Imaginative – Make timely and appropriate alterations in your thought, plans, and methods. Show creativeness by believing of new and better ends, thoughts, and solutions to jobs.

Properties

Properties set up what leaders are, and every leader needs at least three of them ( U.S. Army Handbook, 1983 ) :

Standard Carriers

Establish the ethical model within an organisation. This demands a committedness to populate and support the clime and civilization that you want to pervade your organisation. What you set as an illustration will shortly go the regulation as unlike cognition, ethical behaviour is learned more by detecting than by listening. And in fast moving state of affairss, examples become certainty. Bing a standard carrier creates trust and openness in your employees, who in bend, carry through your visions.

Developers

Aid others learn through instruction, preparation, and training. This creates an exciting topographic point to work and larn. Never miss an chance to learn or larn something new yourself. Coaching suggests person who cares enough to acquire involved by promoting and developing others who are less experient. Employees who work for developers know that they can take hazards, learn by doing errors, and winning in the terminal.

Integrators

Orchestrate the many activities that take topographic point throughout an organisation by supplying a position of the hereafter and the ability to obtain it. Success can merely be achieved when there is a integrity of attempt. Integrators have a 6th sense about where jobs will happen and do their presence felt during critical times. They know that their employees do their best when they are left to work within a vision-based model.

Decision

There may non be one ideal manner to specify leading, but if there are the few leaders within an organisation who can lift to the challenge & A ; demo their leading traits & A ; properties, the company has a batch of possible towards accomplishing its aims. Besides since leading is a uninterrupted development procedure where leaders can ever larn or better their accomplishments.

Giving freedom to do judgement calls & A ; giving chance for people to convey out their leading traits, like the writers organisation encourages helps emerging leaders to understand & A ; develop their ability to go a better leader.

Part 2

Strategic leading

Strategic Leadership is the ability to expect, envision, maintain flexibleness & A ; empower others to make strategic alteration as necessary. Strategic leading involves pull offing through others. the ability to pull off human capital may be the most critical of strategic leaders accomplishments.

A house ‘s ability to accomplish strategic fight & A ; earn above norm returns is compromised when strategic leaders fail to react suitably & A ; rapidly to alterations in the competitory planetary environment. This can be avoided by manages If they were to follow the undermentioned leading theoretical accounts.

Leadership theoretical accounts help to understand what makes leaders move the manner they do. The ideal is non to lock yourself in to a type of behaviour discussed in the theoretical account, but to recognize that every state of affairs calls for a different attack or behaviour to be taken. Two theoretical accounts will be discussed, the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid.

Four Framework Approach

In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal ( 1991 ) suggest that leaders display leading behaviours in one of four types of models: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic. ( See appendix 1 )

The theoretical account suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four classs and there are times when one attack is appropriate and times when it would non be. That is, any manner can be effectual or uneffective, depending upon the state of affairs. Trusting on merely one of these attacks would be unequal, therefore we should endeavor to be witting of all four attacks, and non merely depend on one or two. For illustration, during a period when strong growing is needed, the Symbolic attack may be better.

1. Structural Model

Structural Leaders focal point on construction, scheme, environment, execution, experimentation, and version.

2. Human Resource Framework

Human Resource Leaders believe in people and pass on that belief ; they are seeable and accessible ; they empower, increase engagement, support, portion information, and travel determination doing down into the organisation.

3. Political Model

Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can acquire ; they assess the distribution of power and involvements ; they build linkages to other stakeholders, usage persuasion foremost, so utilize dialogue and coercion merely if necessary.

4. Symbolic Model

Symbolic leaders view organisations as a phase or theatre to play certain functions and give feelings ; these leaders use symbols to capture attending ; they try to border experience by supplying plausible readings of experiences ; they discover and communicate a vision.

Managerial Grid

The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid, besides known as the Leadership Grid ( 1985 ) uses two axis:

“ Concern for people ” is plotted utilizing the perpendicular axis

“ Concern for undertaking or consequences ” is plotted along the horizontal axis.

They both have a scope of 0 to 9. The impression that merely two dimensions can depict a managerial behaviour has the attractive force of simpleness. These two dimensions can be drawn as a graph or grid: ( see Appendix 2 )

Most people fall someplace near the center of the two axis – Center of the Road. But, by traveling to the extremes, that is, people who score on the far terminal of the graduated tables, we come up with four types of leaders:

Authoritarian – strong on undertakings, weak on people accomplishments

State Club – strong on people accomplishments, weak on undertakings

Impoverished – weak on undertakings, weak on people accomplishments

Team Leader – strong on undertakings, strong on people accomplishments

The end is to be at least in the Middle of the Road but sooner a Team Leader.

Authoritarian Leader ( high undertaking, low relationship )

Leaderships who get this evaluation are really much undertaking oriented and are difficult on their workers ( bossy ) . There is small or no allowance for cooperation or coaction. Heavily undertaking oriented people display these features: they are really strong on agendas ; they expect people to make what they are told without inquiry or argument ; when something goes incorrect they tend to concentrate on who is to fault instead than concentrate on precisely what is incorrect and how to forestall it ; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent ( it may merely be person ‘s creativeness ) , so it is hard for their subsidiaries to lend or develop.

Team Leader ( high undertaking, high relationship )

These leaders lead by positive illustration and enterprise to further a squad environment in that all squad members can make their highest potency, both as squad members and as people. They encourage the squad to make squad ends every bit efficaciously as possible, while besides working indefatigably to beef up the bonds among the assorted members. They usually form and lead some of the most productive squads.

State Club Leader ( low undertaking, high relationship )

These leaders preponderantly use reward power to keep subject and to promote the squad to carry through its ends. Conversely, they are about incapable of using the more punitory coercive and legitimate powers. This inability consequences from fright that utilizing such powers could endanger relationships with the other squad members.

Impoverished Leader ( low undertaking, low relationship )

These leaders use a “ delegate and vanish ” direction manner. Since they are non committed to either undertaking achievement or care ; they basically allow their squad to make whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the squad procedure by leting the squad to endure from a series of power battles.

The most desirable topographic point for a leader to be along the two axes at most times would be a 9 on undertaking and a 9 on people – the Team Leader. However, do non wholly disregard the other three. Certain state of affairss might name for one of the other three to be used at times. For illustration, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your squad to derive autonomy. Be an Authoritarian Leader to transfuse a sense of subject in an unmotivated worker. By carefully analyzing the state of affairs and the forces impacting it, you will cognize at what points along the axes you need to be in order to accomplish the coveted consequence.

Leadership Manners

Leadership manner is the mode and attack of supplying way, implementing programs, and actuating people. Kurt Lewin ( 1939 ) led a group of research workers to place different manners of leading. This early survey has been really influential and established three major leading manners. The three major manners of leading are:

Authoritarian or bossy

Participative or democratic

Delegative or Free Reign

Although good leaders use all three manners, with one of them usually dominant, bad leaders tend to lodge with one manner.

Authoritarian ( bossy )

This manner is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without acquiring the advice of their followings. Some of the appropriate conditions to utilize it is when you have all the information to work out the job, you are short on clip, and your employees are good motivated.

The autocratic manner should usually merely be used on rare occasions. If you have the clip and want to derive more committedness and motive from your employees, so you should utilize the participative manner.

Participative ( democratic )

This manner involves the leader including one or more employees in the determination devising procedure ( finding what to make and how to make it ) . However, the leader maintains the concluding determination doing authorization. Using this manner is non a mark of failing, instead it is a mark of strength that your employees will esteem.

This is usually used when you have portion of the information, and your employees have other parts

Delegative ( free reign )

In this manner, the leader allows the employees to do the determinations. However, the leader is still responsible for the determinations that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyse the state of affairs and find what needs to be done and how to make it. You can non make everything! You must put precedences and depute certain undertakings.

This is non a manner to utilize so that you can fault others when things go incorrect, instead this is a manner to be used when you to the full trust and assurance in the people below you. This is besides known as laissez faire ( or laisA·ser faire ) , which is the nonintervention in the personal businesss of others

Effective Leadership

The Two Most Important Keies to Effective Leadership

Harmonizing to a survey by the Hay Group, a planetary direction consultancy, there are 2 cardinal constituents of employee satisfaction ( Lamb, McKee, 2004 ) . They found that:

Trust and assurance in top leading was the individual most dependable forecaster of employee satisfaction in an organisation.

Effective communicating by leading in three critical countries was the key to winning organisational trust and assurance:

Helping employees understand the company ‘s overall concern scheme.

Helping employees understand how they contribute to accomplishing cardinal concern aims.

Sharing information with employees on both how the company is making and how an employee ‘s ain division is making – relation to strategic concern aims.

Positive and Negative Approachs

There is a difference in ways leaders approach their employee. Positive leaders use wagess, such as instruction, independency, etc. to actuate employees. While negative employers emphasize punishments. While the negative attack has a topographic point in a leader ‘s repertory of tools, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit.

Negative leaders act tyrannizing and superior with people. They believe the lone manner to acquire things done is through punishments, such as loss of occupation, yearss off without wage, censuring employees in forepart of others, etc. They believe their authorization is increased by scaring everyone into higher degrees of productiveness. Yet what ever happens when this attack is used wrongly is that morale falls ; which of class leads to take down productiveness.

Besides note that most leaders do non purely use one or another, but are someplace on a continuum runing from highly positive to highly negative. Peoples who continuously work out of the negative are foremans while those who chiefly work out of the positive are considered existent leaders.

Leadership within the Authors Organization

In the writers organisation there are many leading attacks used, out which Kurt Lewin leading manner which was mentioned earlier can be used to place the many leading functions used. For illustration in the section that the writer is working the most common type of manner used is the laissez faire or delegative manner. The ground for this is largely the persons working in this section are on the field including the writer so the company believes that this attack will be suited every bit long as the persons use this within the norms of the organisation. The more autocratic attack can be seen in sections such as legal, histories, subventioning. While, the participative attack can be largely seen within the HR section & A ; the Senior Management.

Similarly the writers organisation is a company that extremely depends on the gross revenues Numberss & A ; marks being achieved, this in bend requires the organisation to hold good leading qualities non merely for its directors but besides for its non managerial members every bit good, the ground for this is the fact that as mentioned earlier the organisation has many types of gross revenues squads & A ; most of the persons within the gross revenues squad are expected to run on their ain, besides since the company objectives for the coming twelvemonth is to go the leader in insurance in Sri Lanka, the organisation to a great extent relies on leaders who know to pull off the staff by utilizing the assorted techniques used by leaders to accomplish the company ‘s concern scheme, the writer has been employed by the company for 2 old ages now & A ; in the writers personal sentiment the writer believes that the organisation has got the right leaders positioned in the right topographic points.

Besides the writer would wish to indicate out that the organisation largely adopts a positive attack were employees are good rewarded, & A ; accent towards the persons personal growing is encouraged by agencies of back uping for surveies & A ; athleticss.

The writer would wish to indicate out one country where the writer believes that the organisation can better upon, although the organisation has a good mix of leading attack & A ; manners, sometimes certain sections merely carry out one type of leading manner. If the organisation could develop & A ; do the relevant directors or section caputs aware of the importance of utilizing a varied manner of leading it would assist many as they would be able to understand assorted manners of leading which in bend would assist the non managerial staff develop their leading accomplishments as good, as they will be able to do right determinations in the hereafter, leting the organisation to hold more persons who can take up to being good hereafter leaders, which will assist the organisations future on the long term.

Decision

There are many theories put frontward by many researches with respect to the many ways in which leading can done, many of these are already been utilized by many leaders & A ; directors within organisations, some are cognizant, while others are non. It is really of import for organisations to do their employees aware of the leading theoretical accounts & A ; manners that exist & amp ; possibly pattern it within the organisation aid develop & amp ; convey out leading qualities.

REFERENCE LIST

Blake, R. R. & A ; Mouton, J. S. ( 1985 ) . ‘The Managerial Grid III: The Key to Leadership Excellence ‘ . Houston: Gulf Publishing Co.

Bolman, L. & A ; Deal, T. ( 1991 ) . “ Reframing Organizations ” . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Hersey, P. & A ; Blanchard, K. ( 1977 ) . “ Management of organisational behaviour: Utilizing human resources ” . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lewin, K. , LIippit, R. and White, R. K. ( 1939 ) . “ Patterns of aggressive behaviour in by experimentation created societal climes ” . Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301

Lamb, L. F. , McKee, K. B. ( 2004 ) . “ Applied Public Relations: Cases in Stakeholder Management ” . Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Routledge.

Jago, A. G. ( 1982 ) . Leadership: Positions in theory and research. Management Science, 28 ( 3 ) , 315-336.

Newstrom, John W. & A ; Davis, Keith ( 1993 ) . “ Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work ” . New York: McGraw-Hill.

Northouse, G. ( 2007 ) . “ Leadership theory and pattern ” . ( 3rd ed. ) Thousand Oak, London, New Delhe, Sage Publications, Inc

Northouse, G. ( 2009 ) . “ Introduction to Leadership constructs and pattern ” . Thousand Oak, London, New Delhe, Sage Publications, Inc

Tannenbaum, R. & A ; Schmidt, W. ” How to take a leading Pattern ” . Harvard Business Review, May-June 1973, No. 73311 ( originally published in March-April 1958 issue ) .

U.S. Army Handbook ( 1973 ) . Military Leadership.

U.S. Army. ( October 1983 ) . Military Leadership ( FM 22-100 ) . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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APPENDIX 1

Four Framework Approach

In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal ( 1991 ) suggest that leaders display leading behaviours in one of four types of models: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic